The Effects of Theatre Education

  • Students involved in drama performance coursework or experience outscored non-arts students on the 2005 SAT by an average of 65 points in the verbal component and 34 points in the math component(1)?
  • Drama activities improve reading comprehension, and both verbal and non-verbal communication skills?
  • Drama helps to improve school attendance and reduce high school dropout rates(2)?
  • A 2005 Harris Poll revealed that 93% of the public believes that arts, including theatre, are vital to a well-rounded education (3)?
  • Drama can improve skills and academic performance in children and youth with learning disabilities?

Numerous studies have demonstrated a correlation between drama involvement and academic achievement. In addition to having higher standardized test scores than their peers who do not experience the arts, student who participate in drama often experience improved reading comprehension, maintain better attendance records, and stay generally more engaged in school than their non-arts counterparts. Schools with arts-integrated programs, even in low-income areas, report high academic achievement.

The College Entrance Examination Board reported student scores from 2001, 2002, 2004, and 2005 using data from the Student Description Questionnaire indicating student involvement in various activities, including the arts. As compared to their peers with no arts coursework or involvement:

  • Students involved in drama performance scored an average of 65.5 points higher on the verbal component and 35.5 points higher in the math component of the SAT
  • Students who took courses in drama study or appreciation scored, on average, 55 points higher on verbal and 26 points higher on math than their non-arts classmates.
  • In 2005, students involved in drama performance outscored the national average SAT score by 35 points on the verbal portion and 24 points on the math section.

Research indicates that involvement in the arts increases student engagement and encourages consistent attendance, and that drop-out rates correlate with student levels of involvement in the arts.

  • – Students considered to be at high risk for dropping out of high school cite drama and other arts classes as their motivations for staying in school.
  • – Students who participate in the arts are 3 times more likely to win an award for school attendance than those who do not.

From learning to read to the in-depth study of Shakespearean literature, drama can play a significant role in the continual development of students’ reading comprehension skills. Studies indicate that not only do the performance of a story and a number of other drama activities in the classroom contribute to a student’s understanding of the work performed, but these experiences also help them to develop a better understanding of other works and of language and expression in general.  The results below were gleaned from studies where educators and students alike noticed a difference when drama played a part in their classrooms,

  • A series of studies on the arts and education revealed a consistent causal link between performing texts in the classroom and the improvement of a variety of verbal skills, including especially significant increases in story recall and understanding of written material.
  • Performance of Shakespeare texts helps to improve students’ understanding of other complex texts including science and math material.
  • Drama can improve reading skills and comprehension better than other activities, including discussion.
In addition to building social and communication skills overall, involvement in drama courses and performance has been shown to improve students’ self-esteem as well as their confidence in their academic abilities.

  • High school students who are highly involved in drama demonstrate an elevated self-concept over those who are not involved .
  • Playwriting original works and dramatic presentation of existing works can help to build the self-esteem and communication skills of high school students.
  • The act of performing can help students and youth recognize their potential for success and improve their confidence .

Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, there has been a national focus on closing the “achievement gap” between students of varying abilities, socioeconomic status, and geographies among other factors that may directly or indirectly affect a student’s academic success.  The arts, including drama, address this issue by catering to different styles of learning, and engaging students who might not otherwise take significant interest in academics.  Additionally, research indicates that drama courses and performance have a particularly positive effect on at-risk youth and students with learning disabilities.

  • A study published in Champions of Change (1999) cites theatre arts, including performance, classes, and participation in a drama club, as a source for “gains in reading proficiency, gains in self-concept and motivation, and higher levels of empathy and tolerance towards others” among youth of low socio-economic status .
  • Drama activities can improve and help to maintain social and language skills of students with learning disabilities and remedial readers .
  • Improvisational drama contributes to improved reading achievement and attitude in disadvantaged students .

5 Easy Photoshop Tips for Beginners

In this article I will walk you through some basic Photoshop retouching skills. These 5 easy Photoshop tips for beginners will be a great start to learning to proces your photographs.

1. Learning Keyboard Shortcuts

Learning keyboard shortcuts will help you to speed up your processing workflow. There are few key shortcuts for different tools in the tool bar. A few of the most widely used shortcuts are:

Photoshop keyboard shortcuts

  • V = move tool
  • F – toggles through display screen modes
  • Space bar = temporary hand key
  • B – paintbrush tool
  • D – sets the foreground/background colorss to default
  • X – swaps between background and foreground color
  • E – eraser tool
  • S – stamp or cloning tool
  • W – quick selection tool
  • Ctrl+j – duplicates the selected layer

There are just few of the most regularly used Photoshop shortcuts. When you start using the program more, your knowledge of shortcuts will gradually increase. Once you are aware of the most used shortcuts retouching pace will be faster than ever.

2. Color Enhancing – Saturation versus Vibrance

Photoshop tips vibrance

Color is another domain you can try while enhancing your photographs. Generally when you are beginning in photography, enhancing the color of every image looks good, as if the colors are speaking out of the photographs. It will be lot more helpful if you can understand the difference between how saturation and vibrance works. Go to Image menu and choose Adjustment under the menu

As shown in the image to the right, select the Vibrance option. You will get two options under the menu – Vibrance and Saturation. Vibrance increases the saturation of less saturated colors. This option avoids yellow and orange skin tones. Basically vibrance works best for portraits.

Photoshop tips saturation color adjustments

On the other hand, saturation increases the intensity of all the colors in your image equally. This may not be a good option for portraits or peoples photos. What I can recommend is this: slowly start with vibrance for the color enhancement and use saturation later if you want to pump up the color more.

If you compare the two photos below, you will understand how vibrance is only responsible for increasing the intensity of less saturated colors, where as saturation increases the intensity of all colors equally.

Photoshop vibrance adjustment

Photoshop saturtation adjustment

3. Adding a Vignette

Photoshop vignette

Vignetting is basically a technique to darken the edges of your frame so that the eyes move to the subject more easily. This procedure works best when you have a subject in the center. Our eyes tend to move towards the brighter part of the image and recede on the darker side. This technique will result in dark space around the subject.

There are lots of manual ways you can add vignetting in your photos but I will talk about how to easily add vignetting in your images via Photoshop. Go to Filters Menu at the top and select “Lens Correction”, then choose the Custom Tab on the right. The third section down is for adding a vignette. Slide the Amount to the left to darken, and Midpoint to adjust the size of the circle.
Photoshop tips vibrance Photoshop tips vignetting

4. Adding Sharpness and Details

Photoshop filter lens correction vignette

Adding sharpness is another technique for beginners in Photoshop. This will make your image look more detailed. I would suggest detailing most of your images with appropriate values. But make sure you sharpen, or detail your images with a small value if you are going to upload images on Facebook because it compresses the images and adds some detail to make it took a bit sharper. So when an already sharpened image is uploaded in Facebook, there is a change of it looking too edgy.

 Photoshop high pass filterLike any other technique, there are many ways you can add details in Photoshop. I will show you a very simple technique. Once you understand how this works you can experiment with some of the other techniques.
  • Step 1. Duplicate the selected layer with a keyboard shortcut Ctrl+J (PC) or Command+J oP MAC
  • Step 2. Open the High Pass filter: Filter > Other > High Pass on the top layer
  • Step 3. Apply an appropriate value (just to see the edges in the image) and click Okay
  • Step 4. Change the blending mode of the top layer to Overlay
  • Step 5. Adjust the opacity of that layer to your taste


5. Photoshop Filter Gallery

Photoshop tips filters

Filters are basically automated effects that you apply to your images with a few clicks. Filters can help you to achieve certain special effects or looks. There are various filters in Photoshop, which you can pick individually, each filter results in different effect when applied to different images. You an also apply more than one and stack them. Though I don’t use filters much, it’s good to explore if you are just starting out in Photoshop. Later, when you are more familiar with advanced tools and techniques you can try to create the similar effect from manual options and controls.

To apply a filter select the layer and go to Filter > Filter Gallery. Before you apply any filter in the gallery make sure to change your image to 8 bit. You can do that by going to Image > Mode > 8 bits/channel

Photoshop filter gallery

I hope these 5 basic Photoshop tips will help you to retouch and enhance your photos. If you have others suitable for beginners please share in the comments below.

10 Quick Facts About Graffiti

Sure, you’ve seen the bubble letters and bright colors that decorate walls, poles and train cars. You may have even heard it by different names. Street art. Vandalism. Tagging. Columbia even has an area dedicated to the craft called Graffiti Beach in Flat Branch Park.

But when and where did it start? Who started it? Why is it there? And what are the legal issues? This quick list will give you a glimpse into the historical and cultural context of graffiti.

1. Graffiti as it’s known today began in the late 1960s in Philadelphia.

It was primarily used to make political statements and mark street gang territory.

Photo courtesy of Flickr/RJ

2. One of the first known graffiti artists was called Cornbread.

His name is Darryl McCray, but he was known by his tagging name, Cornbread.

3. Many graffiti artists tag their work.

“Tagging” is a way for street artists to sign their name anonymously. They often use random words or symbols and then embellish them with stars or crowns.

Photo courtesy of Sry85/Wikimedia

4. The Style Wars began in the 1970s, which introduced the concept of bombing.

Graffiti artists created bigger and bigger pieces in an attempt to achieve fame. They would often “bomb,” or “hit,” one area, which meant painting many surfaces in an area. For the sake of time, they often threw up tags instead of complex pieces.

5. The Philadelphia Anti-Graffiti Network was founded in 1984 to fight the spread of graffiti.

The agency is backed by the city of Philadelphia and provides resources to businesses who need help eradicating vandalism of their property. They also have a Mural Arts Program which allows youth to express themselves by creating murals throughout the city. Similar agencies have popped up in cities around the U.S.

6. While most laws surrounding graffiti are local, there is a federal law prohibiting railroad vandalism.

The law is a strategy to prevent trespassing on railroad property and vandalism affecting railroad safety.  Their main concern in creating this law was safety.

Photo courtesy of A Syn/Flickr

7. Graffiti is one of the four elements of hip hop.

The other three are DJing, emceeing and break dancing. Some have added on a fifth, which is knowledge.

8. Subway graffiti died out for the most part in the late 1980s due to heightened security.

The last subway train with a significant amount of graffiti on it was taken off the rails in 1989. It didn’t die out completely, however, and some artists took to freight trains.

Photo courtesy of Jim Pickerell/Wikipedia

9. A black book, or piece book, is a graffiti artist’s sketchbook.

It’s often closely guarded from authorities because it could be used as evidence in vandalism cases.

Photo courtesy of Jemandarderes/Wikimedia

10. To keep up with the competition, graffiti artists created rubber stamps, stickers and stencils for more efficient tagging.

Some believed that this defied the true nature of graffiti, but at this point in the 1980s, everyone was focused on achieving fame.

Sculpting Materials of Beginner

Sculpting can be a rewarding and therapeutic form of art making. Working with hands directly with medium is a unique experience. Unfortunately, many sculpting materials are expensive or not conducive for use by beginners. In this post, we’ll take a look at some sculpting materials that are easy to find, inexpensive, and most importantly – appropriate for beginners (and young artists).

Before we look at sculpting materials, let’s briefly discuss sculpting processes. There are basically two “umbrellas” sculpting processes fall under. These two “umbrellas” are additive processes and subtractive processes. Additive sculpting processes involve adding materials to “build up” the sculpture, where subtractive processes rely on the removal of the material to “reveal” the sculpture. Additive techniques include modeling and assemblage. Materials typically used for additive processes include clay, wax, and plasticine. An example of a subtractive processes is carving. Typical materials used for subtractive processes include wood, plaster, and marble.

Obviously, some of these materials may not practical for beginners. So, let’s take a look at a few that are.

Materials for Additive Sculpture Processes

Model Magic – Model Magic is made by Crayola. It is a non-toxic and inexpensive sculpting material that air dries. It can be painted with water-based paints when it is dry. It’s fairly sticky stuff and will adhere to an armature pretty well. Art snobs may turn their nose up at Model Magic, but it’s an interesting sculpting medium that’s perfect for beginners that want to have an experience with modeling without the mess or the expense.

Plasticine Clay – Plasticine clay is colored, oil-based clay. It’s what most of use think of when we think of modeling clay. Because it is oil-based, it will not dry out. Most plasticine clay is labeled as non-toxic, but I wouldn’t recommend using it with smaller children. It’s also pricey. If you are considering a larger sculpture, then plasticine clay may “break the bank”. But for smaller sculptures, maquettes, or just playing around, plasticine may be the way to go.

Polymer Clay – Polymer clay is actually PVC. Liquid is added to make it pliable enough to be formed and shaped. Pigment is added to the clay to give it its color and it comes in a wide variety of them. The more you work the polymer clay, the easier it is to work with. Small or weak hands may have some problems manipulating this modeling material when they first start working with it. Polymer clay can be baked in the oven to fix it into shape. This makes it a popular material for making small pieces of jewelry. Polymer clay, however is the most expensive modeling material on this list. You are pretty much limited to small sculptures with this material.

Air Dry Clay – There are a few companies that make air dry “clay”. Each of these products vary greatly in quality and price. For children, your best bet may be with Crayola Air Dry Clay. It’s very inexpensive, non-toxic, and can be painted when its dry. For more developed artists, AMACO Marblex Self-Hardening clay may be the way to go. It’s relatively inexpensive and can result in professional results.

Home Made Play Dough – My mom made me homemade play dough all the time growing up and I loved it. It was warm and mushy and she would make it any color that I wanted. It’s incredibly easy to make, non-toxic and fun. But this medium is pretty much for kids and open-minded adults. Don’t expect professional results from homemade play dough.

Materials for Subtractive Sculpture

Soap Sculpture – Soap is a great material for carving. It’s safe and well-very clean. Dull blades can be used and still create good details. Soap is also inexpensive and perfect for a class project. The best part is that the cheaper soaps are better suited for sculpture!

Plaster of Paris – Plaster of Paris is easy to find at most art stores. It’s inexpensive and easy to mix. Pour it into empty paper milk cartons. Peel away the paper after it sets, and you’re ready to create a sculpture. Use a rasp and sand paper to remove the plaster to reveal your sculpture.

Balsa Wood – Balsa wood is soft and pliable. It’s extremely easy to carve. It makes a suitable wood for beginning carvers. Balsa wood can be picked up at most art stores, but larger pieces might have to be special ordered. Balsa wood is not very expensive, but it’s not cheap either. Carving with Balsa wood might not be suitable for younger artists, since sharp knives are recommended for carving.

Calligraphy in Islamic Art

Tile with Arabic inscription, Iran, about 1215. Museum no. 1481-1876

Tile with Arabic inscription, Iran, about 1215. Museum no. 1481-1876

The development of sophisticated calligraphy as an art form is not unique to Islamic culture. Other examples include Chinese and Japanese calligraphy and illuminated bibles from north-west Europe including the famous Book of Kells. In the Islamic world, however, calligraphy has been used to a much greater extent and in astonishingly varied and imaginative ways, which have taken the written word far beyond pen and paper into all art forms and materials. For these reasons, calligraphy may be counted as a uniquely original feature of Islamic art. The genius of Islamic calligraphy lies not only in the endless creativity and versatility, but also in the balance struck by calligraphers between transmitting a text and expressing its meaning through a formal aesthetic code.

The Arabic language, and subsequently the art of calligraphy, is held in great esteem by Muslims because Arabic was the language in which the Qu’ran was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. The Arabic text of the Qu’ran is sacred to Muslims, and its high status gave rise to an associated respect for books in general. However, it is important to remember that while the Qu’ran’s holy status provides an explanation for calligraphy’s importance, by no means all Arabic calligraphy is religious in content. In general, calligraphic inscriptions on works of art comprise one or more of the following types of text:

  • Qu’ranic quotations
  • other religious texts
  • poems
  • praise for rulers
  • aphorisms

These types of text can be seen across all art forms.

Since Muhammad’s time, Arabic has become a great world language, used over a huge area as a language of religion, government, commerce, literature and science. In time, the letters of the Arabic script, with the addition of a few new letter forms, were also used to write in Persian, Turkish and other languages, as well as Arabic.

Leaf from the Qur'an, Middle East, 800-900. Museum no. Circ.161-1951Leaf from the Qu’ran, Middle East,

800-900. Museum no. Circ.161-1951

How the scripts developed

Although many dialects of Arabic were spoken in pre-Islamic times, and some are known to have been written down, most literature was transmitted orally. The Qu’ran, too, was preserved by oral transmission until after the Prophet’s death when it was recorded in written form. This required that the Arabic script be standardised. We know that the standard form of script was in use by the end of the 7th century. It was employed, for example, on the first surviving monument of Islamic architecture, the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, built in AD 691. The new writing also appeared on the coins minted for Muhammad’s successors, the caliphs. Both the Dome of the Rock and early Islamic coinage use Qu’ranic quotations to declare Islam as the new monotheistic faith.

Dish with inscription in floriated Kufic script, Iran or Uzbekistan, 900-1000. Museum no. C.66-1967

Dish with inscription in floriated Kufic
script, Iran or Uzbekistan, 900-1000.
Museum no. C.66-1967

The first formal calligraphic style is called the Kufic style after the city of Kufah in Iraq. It was used in many early Qur’an manuscripts and for inscriptions, including those at the Dome of the Rock. Confusingly, the same name is also commonly used for a second major group of script styles, which came to prominence in the 10th century. These new, more angular styles came to include many fanciful variants such as foliated Kufic (decorated with curling leaf shapes) and floriated Kufic (decorated with flower forms). This second group of Kufic styles was used in contexts as varied as Qu’ran manuscripts, coinage, architectural inscriptions and the decoration of ceramics.

While this second type of Kufic was being developed in the Middle East, probably in Baghdad, a new style was developed far to the west, in Muslim-ruled Spain or Morocco. The Arabic name for this western region is al-Maghrib, and so the new style was called Maghribi. Some calligraphers in the region still use this Maghribi style today. In the Eastern Islamic world, however, the Kufic styles had more or less died out by the 13th century, replaced by the range of more rounded styles in use now.

Bowl, Iran or Uzbekistan, 900-1000. Museum no. C.47-1964

Bowl, Iran or Uzbekistan, 900-1000.
Museum no. C.47-1964

It may be that the new, more fluid styles developed in the East because paper had replaced parchment and papyrus as the main medium for important manuscripts and documents. The surface of the paper could be sized (coated with starch) and rubbed with a stone until extremely smooth and glossy. The pen moved over this surface with great ease. (Parchment continued to be used until a much later date in the Maghrib).

Another factor was the type of pen used, which was made from a reed. The nib was made by cutting the end of the reed with a knife. Different effects could be achieved by cutting the nib in different ways. The later, rounded scripts were written with a nib cut at an oblique angle, which allowed the calligrapher to create both thick and thin lines, adding elegance and variety to the script. The width of the pen was also important: wider nibs were needed for larger script so that the width of the line stayed in proportion to the overall size of the writing.


Alif image

A system of proportion based on the width of the nib also determined the shapes of the individual letters, and the relative sizes of the letters in a line of writing. The letter Alif, for example, consists essentially of a single vertical stroke. In one style, it is only three times as high as it is wide, while in another it is seven times as high. The letter Alif is therefore far more prominent in the second style and contributes to its overall appearance. Variations were allowed to take account of the different contexts a letter might occur in, and there was also flexibility in the length of the ligatures, or joins between the letters. This was important because the Arabic script is always cursive, or joined-up, and never has separate letters, as in printed English.

Another basic ingredient in the formation of a style was the nature of the base line. In many scripts, the imaginary line on which the letters were written was strictly horizontal. In others, each new group of letters began above the base line and then sloped downwards to the left to meet it. Arabic script, unlike English, reads right to left. These ‘hanging’ scripts were originally devised as a security feature in official documents, because the ‘hanging’ groups could be placed very close together to prevent unauthorised additions. Later, though, this feature was used in other contexts because it was considered elegant.

Materials and techniques

Designs with calligraphy were created out of many different materials. Yet calligraphy often imitates the technical effects of pen on paper, even when it appears on other media. It is possible to see, for example, the graceful range from thick to thin line and the square shape of superscript dots written with a square-cut pen nib. Artists often made their designs by copying from prepared templates written out (on to paper) by a calligrapher.

Ink on parchment

Before the invention of paper, vellum or parchment was the highest quality writing material available. It is made from prepared animal hide. A reed pen, with the tip cut at an angle and filled with ink, would have been used. Writing on vellum can be erased or altered.

Ink on paper

The calligraphy would have been created using a reed pen and ink directly onto starched and polished paper, which provided an excellent smooth surface for writing.


The calligraphy tile pictured below was deeply carved with the inscriptions (and plant designs) and covered with coloured glazes, before the final firing. This technique was used in Central Asia only for a brief period, from around 1350 to the early 1600s.


The letters were carved and then painted. In the image below the paint has now mostly worn off though you can still see some traces remaining.

Leaf from the Qur'an, Middle East, 800-900. Museum no. Circ.161-1951

Leaf from the Qur’an, Middle East, 800-900. Museum no. Circ.161-1951

Detail of page from the Zafar Nama epic, Iran, 1500-1600. Museum no. E.2138-1929

Detail of page from the Zafar Nama epic, Iran, 1500-1600. Museum no. E.2138-1929

Tile Fragment, Bukhara, about 1359. Museum no. 971-1901

Tile fragment, Bukhara, about 1359. Museum no. 971-1901

Detail from wooden panel with Arabic inscription, Spain or Morocco, 1150-1250. Museum no. 378A-1907

Detail from wooden panel with Arabic inscription, Spain or Morocco, 1150-1250. Museum no. 378A-1907

Stained glass

This window pictured below is made from small pieces of glass of different colours, which have been arranged in patterns within a plaster framework.


The weaver of the silk from Muslim Spain has accurately reproduced the flowing lines of a written inscription in Arabic, a task requiring enormous care in the design. The phrase ‘Glory to our lord the sultan’ has been repeated within the widest band in the design, creating the illusion of a long frieze of calligraphy.

Enamelled glass

The lamp was made by blowing hot glass into shape and then leaving it to cool. The enamel colours and gilding were then painted on – the enamel was a solution of colours and ground glass that melted and fused on to the lamp when it was reheated in a kiln. The blown glass would have been decorated with enamel and gilt, possibly using fine brushes.


Metalworkers chiselled out tiny areas of the brass surface and filled them with pieces of silver and gold. They added details by chasing the surfaces of the softer inlaid metals with a hammer and tools and adding a black filler to create contrast. The casket pictured below has a strip of calligraphy around the sides and on the lid.

Window with the Shahadah, the Muslim profession of faith, carved stucco and coloured glass, Egypt, 1800-80. Museum no. 1202-1883

Window with the Shahadah, the Muslim profession of faith, carved stucco and coloured glass, Egypt, 1800-80. Museum no. 1202-1883

Silk with Arabic inscription, silk and metal-wrapped thread in lampas weave, Spain, 1300-1400. Museum no. 830-1894
Mosque lamp, gilt and enamelled glass, Egypt or Syria, 1340. Museum no. 1056-1869

Silk with Arabic inscription, silk and metal-wrapped thread in lampas weave, Spain, 1300-1400. Museum no. 830-1894

Mosque lamp, gilt and enamelled glass, Egypt or Syria, 1340. Museum no. 1056-1869

Casket, brass, with inlaid gold and silver, Iran, 1300-1350. Museum no. 459-1873

Casket, brass with inlaid gold and silver, Iran, 1300-1350. Museum no. 459-1873

Decorating calligraphy

As well as being written with great elegance, there were many ways in which calligraphy could be enhanced by adding decoration. The words themselves could be written in gold, or in colours other than black. Letters and words could also be outlined or could lie against a background pattern. In addition, calligraphers combined different sizes, colours and styles of text for different phrases or sections of text (but always sticking to the rules of proportionality within each section). These Qu’ran folios show how calligraphers could make functional details of formatting and punctuation into beautifully designed elements.

Notice that the decorated frames and background patterns do not interfere with the clarity of the script, or distract from the content of the text. This is very important because the Qu’ran is considered to be the word of God.

Advertise Your Art with the Help of Flyers

Advertising your art can be a pretty daunting task. However, in order to gain recognition, promotion of the art is very essential. At times, you might face some financial difficulties. In cases like these you should consider advertising it with the help of club flyers. There are several benefits of advertising with the help of a flyer. Flyers have been used by many companies as well as individuals to advertise their product.

Benefits of Using as Club Flyer for the Promotion of Art

Gives You Instant Results

You will not have to wait for the result when you are distributing flyers from one person to another. Using flyers you will be able to get the result on the same day of launching the promotional campaign and thereby increase the sales immediately. This is the primary reason why you should consider using a flyer for the promotion of your art. You will be able to popularize your artwork within a short period of time.

You won’t have to Spend Much

You may at times have a budget constraint while advertising your artwork. Flyer is that form of advertising tool that will give you the opportunity to promote your business within your budget. This is the most inexpensive method of marketing. As a matter of fact you will be able to design and print the flyers at home if you want. This way you will be able to save ample amount of money.

It is Very Simple to Use

There are various forms of marketing. Nonetheless, it takes months to plan and prepare them properly. When you choose a flyer as your promotional tool you can exclude the process of searching professional graphic designs which consumes sufficient amount of time. Print it from the Printing VIP and you will be able to start with your campaign on the same day.

Gives You the Feedback of the Consumers

When you talk to people face-to-face, it gives you the opportunity to enquire about some serious topics about the art. This would mean that you would not have to hire an expensive survey service. You will be able to find out the opinion of the people about your product and correct the problems that they might be having. Most importantly, it also gives you the opportunity to inform the people about any positive changes.

It is Highly Effective

When you are interacting with the people directly, it increases the response rate of the customers. You will be able to convince the customers about your product in a better way when compared to other forms of advertising. It gives an amazing result when you consider the price of the flyers.

Boost the Moral of Your Team

Distributing flyers to people is a great way to lift up the spirits of your team when you are facing a hectic time. The positive effect that your promotion will have will boost the performance of the members of the team. This positive impact will also the spread to the customers like wildfire.

Importance of timing in repairing roofs

Most people who choose to have their roofs repaired or replaced do so during the spring and summer months. The reasons for this are pretty obvious, but the fall and winter months are usually when most damage befalls roofs and they also happen to be the times of the year when maintenance projects are hardest to complete.

Potential customers often inquire about the nature and difficulty of installing roofs during the fall and winter months in order to get some understanding about why contractors prefer the work to be done in the warmer parts of the year. This happens especially when customers really have no choice about when they have their roof replaced and must do so immediately.

There are no particular guidelines for industry practice when considering temperature and weather conditions necessary for installing particular kinds of roofs. Many manufacturers and individual providers do have particular recommendations and practices. In fact, you’d be unlikely to find a roofing contractor that does not pay close attention to upcoming weather patterns in an effort to do the work during the most advantageous weather conditions. Even companies like that operates in Florida prefers the warmest months.

The most concerning aspect about the job that starts during inclement weather is about the self-sealing strips that bond pieces together. Without warm, adequate weather it is no guarantee that the strips will form the best bond. The sun is especially helpful in forming the bond by warming the newly installed roof and aiding the production of a good seal.


Whenever you determine is the best time to have your roof replaced, there are innumerable professionals waiting to be contacted to help you with whatever is afflicting your home.

The Essentials of Entertainers – Getting to Point A

Christian Music Inspires Body and Soul People write Gospel or Christian music so that they can express their sentiments and ideas about the Christian life.Nowadays gospel music has become a part of the mainstream music industry and is also becoming very popular.Although there are differences when it comes to creation, performance, and significance in different parts of society, the core of the music has not been lost. When Christian music is played, it is primarily for religious worship or religious ceremonies, then it can also be used for aesthetic purposes at the same time for entertainment purposes. But despite all the difference, the common theme of Christian music is not lost and that is to worship and praise God, Christ and the Holy Spirit, and this is the reason why this form of music inspires both body and soul. This type of music is very diverse but it continues to inspire the body and soul.Urban contemporary music, Southern gospel, traditional gospel music, and contemporary music are just some of the subgenres of what is known as Christian music.Christian music is known to use chorus or refrain very frequently, and this makes the music unique. A lot of people believe that Christian music inspires both body and soul.With this kind of music, the brain is stimulated and helps the body to relax so that one can enjoy the moment and forget about the day’s troubles. When listening to Christian music you mind and emotions are stimulated so as to help you express your creative sensitivity. There are two factors responsible for gospel music’s influences in the human mind and emotions.A lot of people are soothed with gospel music melodies and its helps their body relax and helps them in sleeping. Experts say that listening to gospel music is like having an inspiration sound bath that helps you to be calm and rested.This type of music can help people when they live with a high level of stress each day.
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But of course it depends on the type of gospel music that you listen to.Christian music resembling rock music will not give you that calm spirit but instead it can make you more tense and more awake.Christian music with slow tempo can have a sedative effect and will calm a person and perhaps put him to sleep. Another advantage of listening to gospel music has to do with people with body and mind issues like those with psychiatric disorders, physical handicap, and those suffering from sensory impairment, developmental disabilities, and substance abuse. Because of their inspiring lyrics, Christian music has brought healing to people that cannot be received from contemporary music. The message of God and His Words are brought forth in gospel music and is the main reason for its calming effect to the soul that no other kind of music can achieve.What I Can Teach You About Bands

3D Animation / Graphic Design Job Description

Graphic design and 3-D animation blend art with technology to communicate informative, entertaining and inspiring ideas. Graphic design focuses on creating visual concepts for brochure, advertisement and magazine layouts, while 3-D animation focuses on creating three-dimensional virtual objects for use in digital products. These professions are ideal for individuals with strong artistic abilities. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that the median annual wage for graphic designers was $44,150 as of May 2012. The median annual wage for multimedia artists and animators was $61,370 as May 2012.

Many graphic designers and 3-D animators work for advertising agencies.

Doing the Work

  • Superior creative skills play a key role in the effectiveness of 3-D animators and graphic designers. They must create visual concepts and ideas than can engage and appeal to consumers of their products. These professionals also require strong computer skills and a deep knowledge of design and animation software to formulate ideas and prepare their products. In addition, they need time-management skills to plan their time well and beat tight deadlines. Because graphic designers and 3-D animators may work in teams — especially when working on large projects — they need good communication skills to confer effectively with project staff and clients.

Animating Objects

  • The main responsibility of 3-D animators is to create virtual objects that can move and rotate like real-life objects in movies, music videos and computer games. In the production of an animated movie, for example, 3-D animators may capture an actor’s movements to create computer generated images, which they can manipulate to make animated scenes. These animators can also manipulate light, texture and color to create 3-D drawings and illustrations for product labels and presentations.

Developing Designers

  • Graphic designers are responsible for the overall look of a website, ad, magazine or brochure. They might create the images to appear on the front cover of a magazine and select the size, font, color and length of headlines, heading and texts. They might also present statistical data in the form of visual graphs, images and tables. In advertising, graphic designers create designs for company logos and product illustrations.

Getting There

  • Employers of graphic designers and 3-D animators prefer candidates with bachelor’s degrees. Aspiring graphic designers can earn bachelor’s degrees in graphic, computer or multimedia design, while 3-D animators can secure bachelor’s degrees in 3-D animation or closely-related fields. Individuals with degrees in other disciplines, such as education, can pursue certificate programs in graphic design or animation to enter these professions. A master’s degree in fine arts, combined with vast work experience and a strong portfolio, can help 3D animators and graphic designers secure large and high profile projects and break into multimedia management positions.

How to Become a Theatrical Makeup Artist

A makeup (also known as make-up) artist creates and implements character design involving looks. They often work closely with the costume designer to create an entire look. In the theater, makeup artists must also work with environments as the main goal is to ensure that the character/actor’s facial expressions are visible to the audience. In the past, performers did their own makeup; however, in the 21st century it is more common to find professional makeup artists doing it for them.

This is an example of a small train case.

Learning the skills

  1. Every career demands certain skills and abilities from its professionals. Some key traits for a makeup artist are: natural talent; ability to speak and listen well; good manner with people; eye for detail; a flexible nature; a positive nature; patience; hand-eye coordination; ability to draw straight lines and consistent shapes; creativity; great portfolio; good grooming and personal hygiene habits.
  2. There are two ways to learn how to be a makeup artist. You can go it alone or you can go to a school. Either way you will have to practice.
  3. Some ways to sneak in practice is to have makeup parties, read books on makeup, volunteer for makeup-related jobs, find a mentor or be an apprentice or become an intern.
  4. If you chose to go to school to learn the art of makeup, make sure you shop around. A good article on the subject is “Before You Choose a Makeup School” by Mary Erickson. She cautions that your first impression of a school is probably not necessarily indicative of the reality of it.
  5. Here are a few things to keep in mind while looking to schools:

    -Are the teachers working professionals?
    -Is the curriculum up-to-date?
    -Is the curriculum advanced (or beginning) enough for your level?
    -Is the class/program specialized or specific?
    -Does the school offer on-the-job training or co-op programs?
    -Does the school offer job placement help?
    -What is the school’s published placement rate of its graduates?
    -How large or small is the average class?
    -How much time is given to hands-on training?
    -Does the school supply models?
    -As the program in or cover the area(s) you are interested in?
    -Ask to sit in on a few classes. If the school refuses, see it as a red flag that they are more interested in cranking out graduates rather than really helping you.
    -What is the school/class cancellation policy?
    -Ask to speak with past graduates. If they decline, see it as another red flag.

Getting the job

  1. Finding job openings can be tricky if your school does not offer placement help, or you do not already know someone in the field. Use the classified ads in papers, job boards, company websites, online job boards and trade publications.
  2. Once you have the job make yourself handy and go beyond the basics of the job. Don’t settle for the status quo: be visible, be creative, be polite and professional, and be personable.
  3. Always present the highest quality work ethic in all things, in all ways.

Entertainment – My Most Valuable Advice

The Fun Of Collectible Card Games For Both Kids And Adults The majority of the young boys these days, or even years ago, would love to have a great collection of basketball, baseball, hockey, or soccer cards. For several years now, card collections have been built all around various kinds of sports that are also very much appealing to kids around the globe. You will notice that the latest trend these days in collections have been spreading into television shows and online games, giving every child the chance to play, trade, and collect worldwide! As a matter of fact, there have been a lot of boys who would choose to carry all of these collectible cards even if they’re already in their adulthood. You can actually say that wanting to have collectible cards is just a passing trend that a lot of boys would really want to get themselves involve in, but for some, this trend may turn out to be something more – a passion. As a matter of fact, a lot of men would most likely keep their card collection habit all throughout their entire life and even collect some more as years pass by. You might have some men in your mind right now whom you think is still in to collectible cards, coins, stamps, and many other collections that they’ve been collecting since childhood.
If You Read One Article About Games, Read This One
Did you know that it was actually trading card games which started out the collectible card games? By having anime TV shows that are popular to most kids these days, card games will definitely become an instant winner to every child. There have been reports of a wide variety of anime card games that actually hit the markets and were even said to be experiencing a stunning success!
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Collectible Card Games Open-handed Rules Unlike all the other typical games, when it comes to card games, the rules are absolutely very open to whatever the child sees as well as the availability of cards. They may always choose to collect cards based on whatever is the part of the game that they think is important. A card has its value increased based on what is the description of he card as well as what picture is printed on these cards. The very reason why each game deck is unique is because every player, no matter their age, would try their best to find that exact content that they desire. Toy stores would even capitalize on these particular trends which would create tournaments and trading sessions wherein all players, whether they’re young or adults, may be able to use whatever cards they have and battle their opponents. Teenagers and adults would view tournaments as more appealing to them as they understand the concept of getting better cards from their opponent’s deck should they win the challenge.

Cars: 10 Mistakes that Most People Make

Key Considerations when Renting a Car Service in New York City New York is one of the cities in the United States that is perfect for travelers due to several great places. These comprise the famous Empire State Building, Central Park, Times Square, radio city hall, and numerous restaurants, theaters, night clubs, sports facilities, and recreation spots. However, you ought to hire a car for you to easily get to these areas. Having a car service will enable you to take pleasure in your travel around the city. Car service in New York City offers two choices. You can either hire a car and drive all alone, which is cheaper, or take on a chauffeur driven car. You can easily get from one point to another using the service but once you are new in the city, you can actually get lost. What you can do is to take on a NY car service that will drive you to your hotel, take care of your luggage, and move you around the city without any trouble. When you think you are good on maps and directions, you could take a car from the service provider and have your own way. However, there will be another challenge because there are several options with NY Car service. You have to search a bit first so you can get better prices and know the company reputations, policies and car conditions. Once you will hire one with a chauffeur, you will be aware of its company safety records so you are guaranteed that the drivers are safe and you and your family are safe as well.
Doing Options The Right Way
You must be familiar with the charges of the NY car service company when you are late, on hourly basis, or for one whole day. Consider the gas charges as well that can different from one company to another. Some companies give a full tank, which you need to return fully fueled unless you pay charges. Others will allow you to purchase your own fuel.
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You must take advantage of weekend specials and lower price offers especially if you need a chauffeur. This is much better than travelling in buses and taxis since fare is normally comparable to cars driven by chauffeurs. It is also expensive to hire airport car service because the companies still have to pay to the airport and these fees are added into your fare. You will observe that the majority of agencies have large cars that can accommodate business travels. When you go for a smaller car, some agencies will frequently give you a package where your car is upgraded to a bigger one. It is not tough to hire NY car service on the condition that you select the right one to make your trip memorable. You can check online to see a number of choices and get the right one for your needs. You will be amazed to discover several services that provide affordable prices and better experience.

Practical and Helpful Tips: Resources

A Quick Guide to Games And Entertainment Today almost everything is undergoing some form of revolution, since most of them have undergone tremendous change. If at all you are one of those personnel who remains in office for a whole day, then it is important you look out for some relaxation at the end of the day. The free online games are making it possible for people to enjoy their choice game, in order to relieve the unnecessary stress. Among all the games that are online based, the multiplayer games still stand as the best games that provide people with extreme fun. The good thing with these games is that, they offer you a chance to compete against other competitors. Today online world is offering people an opportunity to connect and start playing with other players, though back in the years it was popularly known for providing news and entertainment. The commendable part with the internet games, is that they are normally easy to access and do offer a lot of entertainment and excitement. The online gaming still stands out as the best alternative to have extreme entertainment, though there are various ways you may spend your leisure. You are not only going to enjoy playing the online card games but more also you have a good opportunity to win huge chunks of money in the multiplayer games. You are assured to find various popular games at a free cost, if at all you consider conducting proper internet search. The best part with the online games is that there are mainly two types of games, that include java platform based games and the flash platform based games. Nowadays the online gaming has become an addictive form of gaming, due to the fact that they provide people with unending fun. People are normally offered exciting gaming experience by the online gaming since they are easy to operate games. There are a number of considerations you will need to ensure so as to enjoy these online games.
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It will be most suitable before you start playing these games, you consider downloading the appropriate plug-in for your browser for supporting the graphics. You are advised you get to consider having a fast internet connection since games do require more time to download in a slow net connections. What makes the online games very good, is due to the fact that these games are convenient to download and easy to play. Nowadays people are finding the online gaming as a good entertainment media and more also helps in relieving boredom. The appreciable thing about the online games is that they can be played by all people, in regardless of their age and gender.
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It will be best when you are looking for online games stores you choose the game that will offer you unlimited fun and entertainment.

Differences in Mesopotamian and Egyptian Cultures

To the modern observer, the ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations likely seem very similar. Both had cities, writing, codes of laws, a relatively high standard of living, art, music, religion, literature, meticulous record-keeping and a fairly similar climate. However, they differed in important ways, especially in terms of religion, politics, culture, art and architecture.The ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures differed in several important ways.

Differences in ReligionBoth ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were polytheistic, and in both religions, priests played a crucial role, but the two differed in key ways.

The approximately 700 gods of ancient Egypt were often personifications of natural forces, such as the sun and the Nile. One important characteristic of ancient Egyptian religion was the Egyptians’ veneration of the pharaohs as reincarnated gods. The Egyptians are also famous for their elaborate view of the afterlife.

One major difference between the Egyptian and Mesopotamian religions was the “local” or regional quality of the latter; early on in Mesopotamia, specific deities came to be identified with specific locations. Another distinction was the hierarchical division of Mesopotamian deities, with four gods–those of heaven, earth, water and air– being the highest creative powers from which all lesser gods derived.

The Mesopotamians considered their temples, or ziggurats, links between heaven and earth.
Political DifferencesAncient Egypt had a highly centralized government. Its efficient bureaucracy and the pharaohs’ exalted position meant that rulers wielded great power over the entire country.

The governments of ancient Mesopotamia, in contrast, were more regional in character, with each city having its own government, and they included elements of what we would call democracy. Kings (of city-states) arose as the civilization developed, but elected assemblies had important powers, too, even over the kings. The Mesopotamians also held the law, and “covenants” or contracts, in high regard, as we know from the famous Code of Hammurabi, among other sources.

Ancient Egyptian pharoahs had more power than Mesopotamian kings.
Cultural DifferencesThe cultures of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were both quite similar and very different; both were predominantly agricultural societies dependent upon rivers–the Nile in Egypt and the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia. And in both, the vast majority of people were engaged in agriculture, but both also contained sophisticated urbanites, bureaucracies and educated and artistic classes and traded with other civilizations, .

The distinctive characteristics of Egyptian culture were a love of stability and order and a certain optimism or confidence, which many scholars attribute to the reliability of the Nile’s annual cycle. The centrality of religion in the Egyptian worldview and the development of elaborate hieroglyphic writing were also hallmarks of this civilization.

Life in the Mesopotamian city-states was generally more difficult and more uncertain, since for most of these city-states, the climate, the fluctuating relations with neighboring tribes and cities and the behavior of the rivers were less stable and predictable than in Egypt. Perhaps because of this, the ancient Mesopotamians surpassed the Egyptians in science, especially in technology and innovation. The ancient Mesopotamians’ cuneiform alphabet was another important achievement of this civilization.

The ancient Mesopotamian societies were more inventive, but less stable and prosperous than Egypt.
Differences in Art and ArchitectureThe famous architectural achievements of ancient Egypt reflect the highly centralized power, stability and bureaucratic efficiency of a country that could mobilize cheap labor in almost unlimited quantities. They were also made possible by the availability of stone in the region.

In addition to their magnificent stone architecture, the ancient Egyptians are known for their invention and use of paper, which they made from the papyrus reeds growing along the Nile. They also created a beautiful array of pottery and painting.

The comparatively scattered and diverse character of ancient Mesopotamia, and the relative paucity of natural resources, meant that Mesopotamia did not rival Egypt in terms of artistic and architectural achievements. Mesopotamian communities did produce sculpture, painting and pottery, but generally the art that has survived is smaller and less advanced than that produced in Egypt. Mesopotamia is known, instead, for its cuneiform tablets, its official seals and, above all, its temples. The distinctive beauty of the Mesopotamian ziggurat represents the highest artistic and architectural achievement of this civilization.

The ziggurat, or temple, is the most important artistic achievement of ancient Mesopotamia.

Obtaining Broadway, Concert, and Also Sporting Tickets at a Reasonable Price

You happen to be heading to New York for your dream trip and you also want to enjoy at least one Broadway program. You have checked into the prices of these shows and were shocked at just how much they cost so now you have 2 solutions. You can buy off broadway tickets and watch another program or try to find broadway show tickets at a more sensible selling price. Many choose the last option and often turn to Headline Tickets ( every time they do this. While they offer discount off broadway tickets, these seats are truly for headline productions. The broadway theater tickets offered through Headline Tickets ( can be purchased free of fees to help reduce the purchase price yet you’ll still get to see a spectacular show. Pick from a range of programs, such as Broadway, Cirque Du Soleil, Dances, and even Children’s. The tickets enable you to check out productions like Book of Mormon, A Bronx Tale, Lord of the Dance, and Showboat and you are sure to have an enjoyable experience while there. What’s more, you could benefit from productions in different metropolitan areas, like Toronto or Chicago and all seat tickets will be guaranteed so that you understand you get what you’re spending money on. Not merely will the tickets arrive on time, in the event the program has been canceled for any reason without having a reschedule time, you’ll get your money back. You can’t lose in cases like this. To help make your vacation ideal in each and every manner, this company also offers the means to access concert and sporting activities tickets. You’ll find you simply need to use the 1 company to organize your entertainment from a to z. Do you truly dream of seeing the Giants play whilst in the city or have you always envisioned soaking up a Yankees game? Doing this at reasonable prices is now less difficult due to this provider. Regardless of which sorts of seats you are interested in, whether it is to an MLB squad or something else, get in touch with the provider to obtain inexpensive sporting events seat tickets. Because the firm is BBB accredited and veteran owned, you understand you’ll be able to count on this firm to deal with you fairly at each stage of the procedure. Complete your vacation by taking in a live concert. Pick from New Age, Rock, and even Jazz among the many others. While on the website, be sure to check out the discount code provided through the business since doing this enables you to save a lot more. To ensure that you are receiving the very best total price, you need to look into the cost immediately after fees and even delivery have actually been included. If you do, you’ll see that this provider offers the best deal all around. With lots of seat tickets to choose from, including seats to Broadway productions as well as major sports activities, your vacation will certainly be wonderful in every single way and you will not spend a fortune to ensure this is actually the situation.

What Contributions Did the Greeks Give to Modern Day Society?

In the current era of technology and convenience it is hard to believe a civilization that thrived from 1000 B.C. to 323 B.C. made any lasting contributions; however, the ancient Greeks have made an impact on history that is still visible in modern society. Many of their ideas and innovations are taught today in schools worldwide.

An ancient Greek amphitheatre


  • The presentation of written word known as theater began in Athens and diffused to other parts of the ancient Greek empire. Fifth-century playwrights Aristophanes and Sophocles produced comedies and tragedies, respectively. During the early days of theater, masks were used to represent a variety of emotions and to disguise male actors playing female roles. Only 44 plays from the ancient Greeks remain today, serving as the foundation of Western theater.


  • Just as Athens was the birthplace of theater, in 508 B.C. it became the world’s first democracy. Democracy is a system of government in which citizens elect representatives to advocate for them in the government. Plato, an ancient Greek philosopher, wrote “Politics” and encouraged citizens to question the established government. Only free adult men could be citizens during this time; women and slaves were excluded from owning property or voting.


  • The most recognizable contribution the ancient Greeks made to architecture are their columns and pavilions. There are two types of Greek columns, Doric and Ionic. Doric is a minimalistic style, while Ionic columns were more ornate, with scrolls carved into each side. Many buildings in Washington, D.C. were based on classical Greek buildings. Universities and colleges, such as the University of Virginia, have ancient Greek influenced structures. The beautiful, clean style is still appreciated today.


  • During the Classical and Hellenistic periods of Greek art, the ancient Greeks idolized the human form. During this time, advances in sculpting and painting techniques were made that would influence the Italian Renaissance centuries later. Once classical Greek art was rediscovered, Italian artists began depicting the beauty of the human body as the Greeks once did. Along with modern religion themes of the time, Italian painters also painted scenes of popular Greek myths and stories.

The Difference Between Theater & Cinema

Theater and cinema are two different art mediums that incorporate some similar aspects such as acting and theatrics. They have many major differences as well. Learning the differences between theater and cinema can help you to determine which medium you might enjoy more as entertainment or prefer as a career.

Theater is a live art medium.


  • Theater has stage venues such as in a play house, whereas films are played anywhere with a screen or projector. Theater holds a deeper connection between the audience and actors because the audience is seeing the character’s story happen right in front of them as if peeking into the actual life of a stranger. Cinema is limited to a two-dimensional screen and has more distraction from the actual characters through things like different camera angles, special effects or scenery shots.


  • The presentation itself is very different between the two. Theater occurs live in front of an audience. Cinema is recorded and two-dimensional. With a prerecorded medium, the audience can expect the same piece of art over and over, whereas in theater the live art can differ each time. Theater, however is limited to what can be portrayed on a stage. While you can have many different sets and lighting, you can not use many different locations and angles as cinema can.

Creative Process

  • With plays actors and behind-the-scenes crews work together to prepare and put on each performance to ensure the front and backstage flow well. For example when an actor on stage is waiting for a light cue or musical cue from the backstage. In cinema there are different departments such as actors, special effects and musical composers who work separately and may never interact, and in the end editors will bring all the different crews’ work together.


  • The origins of each medium are very different, and the lengths of time they have existed are also different. Theater can be traced back to ancient Grecian times and began as a religious medium. Cinema originated amid technological advances in the early 1900s, when pictures were captured on cameras and then turned into films. Cinema has seen rapid growth since it’s origins, whereas theater has stayed relatively close to its original performance-style medium, although stage lighting and sets have evolved.

Theater Renovation Grants

Theater renovation projects happen in phases, and each phase requires planning and funding to be successful. Money from grant sources is a welcome occurrence but requires its own planning and application process—awards do not happen instantly and typically happen on a yearly basis. The League of Historic American Theaters recommends the following funding sources.

Preserving America's theaters takes time and grant applications.

MJ Murdock Charitable Trust

  • One of the areas of interest to the MJ Murdock Charitable Trust is arts and culture. The focus when awarding grants for this topic are projects that enrich a cultural environment. The Rialto Community Theater located in Deer Lodge, Montana, was awarded a $300,00 grant from the MJ Murdock Charitable Trust specifically to renovate the theater. Although the Trust’s focus is not solely theater renovations, it is obvious that its priorities include this type of project. The Trust reports that about half of the grants and awards they make are given to capital improvement projects.

    MJ Murdoch Charitable Trust
    703 Broadway, Suite 710
    Vancouver, WA 98660

National Endowment For the Arts

  • The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) includes assistance for theater renovations under their Design Arts Program. Its funding includes feasibility plans for adaptive reuse, restoration and renovation. Funding can also be obtained for theaters involved in the revitalization of cultural districts. Money is available for the planning of theater renovations but not actual construction materials and costs. Apply for grant money for historic preservation, urban and architectural studies and design planning through the NEA topic of “Design.”

    National Endowment for the Arts
    1100 Pennsylvania Ave. NW
    Washington, D.C.20506-0001

Save America’s Treasures

  • Offered through the National Parks Service, the Save America’s Treasures Grant Program includes theaters of historical significance. The program is a federal matching grant program designed to fund restoration projects across America. Matching programs require a two-part award—the grant funds a dollar amount and the theater project committee must locate a non-Federal match for funding. Theaters must have historical significance to qualify. See the National Park Service program details for further information on applying.

What Is Digital Media Art?

Artistic expression has evolved through the ages of human civilization based on the tools we have at hand. Ten thousand years ago our ancestors painted on cave walls with natural pigments. Early Mediterranean peoples in Crete painted frescoes on the walls of their palaces. The development of art has progressed throughout the course of human history. The advent of computers and software art programs has simply created yet another set of canvases and tools through which artists can express themselves. After designing artwork in one of these programs you can turn the project into a tangible item by making a canvas print of your design so that you can display it. 

This is an example of fractal art

Digital Media

  • According for the Center for Digital Media in Canada, “media experiences made possible by the advent of primarily computer-mediated digital technologies” belong to category of media experiences known as Digital Media. In other words, Digital Media includes any picture, music file, video game or website produced using computerized or digital technology.

Digital Art

  • Works of Art which are created using computerized or digital technologies also belong to the Digital Media family. This Digital Media Art, or Digital Art as it is commonly called, presents itself everywhere in our society. The clip art used in printed fliers, the emergence of digital photography and the development of photo-painting all serve as examples of Digital Art.

Digital Photography

  • According to the digital artist behind With Digital Eyes, digital art falls into three formats: Digital photography, digital painting and fractals. Digital Photography involves the use of photographs, whether digital or from film, and computerized technology. “The artist uses image editing and special effects software to perform darkroom type manipulations.” Photo-painting represents another form of Digital Photography, one that involves using painting software that allows the artist to infuse the picture with additional artistic expression.

Digital Painting

  • Works of art created completely within the bounds of computerized digital technology and image editing or painting software represent works of Digital Painting, the second main format of Digital Art. Images produced wholly within the computer environment may present as either two-dimensional or three-dimensional pictures, depending on the artist’s intent. According to Surreal Pixel Studio, this form of art includes “hand-illustrated artwork which has been created by drawing brushstrokes with a pressure sensitive pen onto an electronic canvas, called a tablet.”


  • The third main form of digital art involves the use of mathematical algorithms to create fractal images involving repeating patterns of geometric shapes. According to Fractalus, a Fractal Art FAQ website, Fractal art “seeks to reflect and emphasize the eternal expressions of order and chaos that permeates Nature’s structures and behaviors as well as the intricacies of humanity through the use of self-similar patterns and shapes.”

Appreciate The Newest Technologies With A WiFi Home Theater System

Should you like to savor your pictures the way they are supposed to be enjoyed, you then should buy WiFi home theater system. These techniques are inexpensive plus they will permit you to take full advantage of your films and music. The very best thing about them is that they’re portable and do not have nasty wires. By visiting the page of nr1504 one can obtain some helpful info on the product.

Because a WiFi system doesn’t have wires, you can take it anywhere and move it from room to room. This makes it easy to use wherever you want it and you’re not limited to keeping it in one room all the time. Should you want to maneuver your system to the basement or an upstairs Television, you will be in a position to do so with no issue. By visiting the page of nr1504 one can gain some useful info on the product.

One other great point about these techniques is that they are compatible with all of your Wireless devices. Should you want to enjoy the songs from a streaming service on your smart phone, you just have to wirelessly connect it to your home theatre system and it is possible to tune in to your own music via your audio speaker. If you wish to look at a movie on your tablet PC but can not withstand the inferior sound from the loudspeaker, only use your Bluetooth to link to your tablet PC to your home audio system and appreciate best quality sound.

WiFi home stereo systems give you a ton of versatility and they allow you to have significantly more pleasure of your devices and your films. There is actually no reason to return to utilizing bulky wires once you upgrade to some wi fi system.

Enhance your house and make playing songs and films more enjoyable. Put in a WiFi system to your home entertainment collection now and start loving powerful appear.

How to Teach High School Theater

You got a job teaching high school theatre. Now what?Teaching theatre can be challenging, but it can change your students’ lives forever. In this guide, you will learn valuable tools for teaching high school theatre.

Teaching High School Theatre without a Text Book

  1. Prepare for your first day with a pre-written course syllabus and a set of your own expectations. Theatre students are, by nature, communicators. Your classroom environment should allow students freedom of expression. Some students may have been put in your class, without having registered for it. Assure these students that their completion of the course will benefit them in more ways than simply obtaining theatrical training.
  2. Allow students the freedom to create their own list of expectations from the class. This will assure them that they should feel comfortable in theatre class. Remind them, that you are the teacher, but you are open to suggestions.
  3. Begin instruction with a history of theatre. Consider assigning students a web quest (search History of Theatre web quests in any search engine). Web quests give students freedom to search the Internet for relevant information on a given topic and instruct students to create a product for presentation.
  4. Allow students to choose a one-act play and use the basic design of a play to teach playwrighting and formats. Use this play to assign first performance-a monologue chosen from the play they read.
  5. Use clips from “Whose Line is it Anyway” to introduce improvisational theatre. Provide students with improvisation situations, or allow them to create their own, and allow them to perform them for the class. Use your props and costume box to acclimate students to using these materials on stage.
  6. As a class, choose a full-length play to read aloud and study. Some classes may choose to perform the play for an audience. Ask other teachers in the school to bring their classes to your room or to the performance location to serve as your audience. Recommended plays for classroom analysis are: The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde, The Miracle Worker by William Gibson, Our Town by Thornton Wilder or Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. It is essential that you incorporate a study of the playwright’s biography in your instruction.Choose scenes from the play for students to rehearse and perform. You may also conduct auditions to prepare the students for the rigorous process of auditioning.Allow students access to your props and costume box for their performance of scenes.
  7. As a final project, require your students to research an unlikely career field that utilizes theatrical elements. Examples include: lawyer, teacher, author, salesperson, public speaker, and motivational speakers. Require that your students either write a paper, create a power-point or some other presentation format for evaluation.

How to Preserve Bodies After Death

Preserving bodies after death is a process that has evolved considerably over the centuries. Ancient Egyptians would mummify dead bodies by removing the major organs and packing the inside and outside of the body with salt to dry it out over 40 days. The corpse would then be wrapped in linens which were treated with waterproof resins. Today’s process for preserving a dead body is aided by more modern technological techniques but still requires the ability of someone trained and experienced in the process.

Preserving a dead body for any length of time takes some expertise.


  1. Move the body into a refrigeration unit. The colder the body is, the slower decomposition will be. This will make it more difficult for bacteria to cultivate.
  2. Place absorbent padding at each of the orifices of the body to prevent seepage.
  3. Wash the body with soap and water to remove any dirt or grease. Spray disinfectant around the eyes, nose and mouth, as these areas tend to decay first.
  4. Pour embalming fluid (such as formaldehyde) into an embalming machine and hook up the machine to the body. Inject the intake tube into the carotid artery in the neck and the outtake tube into the jugular vein.
  5. Run the embalming machine to remove blood from the body and replace it with the embalming fluid. The fluid makes it harder for bacteria to grow in the body and break it down.
  6. Insert the trocar (a long metal tube, plastic hose combination) into the body to the left of the belly button of the body. The trocar should be connected to a hydroaspirator. Turn on the hydroaspirator to suck moisture out from the major organs in the body. Move it around through the initial puncture to find the kidneys, spleen, and other organs. Once they are drained, reverse the flow of the hydroaspirator to pump more embalming fluids into the organs.
  7. Seal the puncture from the trocar with cotton.and dress the body as needed.

How to Use a Bachelor’s Degree in Religion

Religion plays a major role in the modern world, from the holy wars of Islamic jihadists to issues about diversity in the workplace. The study of religion is also a study of cultures, which can add considerably to a student’s knowledge and prepare her for a variety of careers outside the typical path of the ministry.

A religious social worker reads to a senior man.

What You’ll Learn

  • Before you consider how a degree in religion might be useful in a career, take stock of the skills and knowledge such a degree offers. A religious study major learns critical thinking skills by comparing and contrasting different religions and the cultures to which they belong, according to “The Princeton Review.” Religious studies will help improve your cultural literacy, according to the Why Study Religion website developed by the American Academy of Religion. You’ll learn how to analyze perplexing ethical questions and be trained in data gathering and direct observational skills. Finally, you will learn to value others’ perspectives and develop empathy.

Many Career Options

  • Religion majors have entered diverse careers, such as business, counseling, social work, education, journalism, law and medicine. They can be found in the hospitality and service industries, government positions, the Foreign Service, marketing, management, museums and the arts. Louisiana State University reports its students have gone on for graduate study at law school, nursing school and seminaries, and have earned degrees in biblical studies and social work. Other possible careers include community organizer, church administrator and high school teacher.

Start or Finish

  • Whether your bachelor’s degree is the last step in your education or the beginning of a longer journey depends on your ultimate goal. If your goal is social work, a bachelor’s degree in religion might be acceptable to some employers. Many teaching positions require only a bachelor’s degree. On the other hand, if you want to pursue a doctorate of divinity, you’ll need to go on for a master’s degree and then enter a doctoral program. If your goal is medicine, your bachelor’s degree will allow you to enter medical school as long as you also complete prerequisites such as biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics and English, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Other Considerations

  • Education is only part of the picture for many careers. In addition to your bachelor’s degree, you might need other credentials or training to enter some professions, according to the BLS. Some states require social workers to be licensed. Teachers must typically complete a teaching internship to gain experience and must be certified or credentialed by the state in which they work. Physicians need a license and most choose to become board-certified, while lawyers must pass the bar examinations. Contact the governing board or professional association in your state to determine what you might need for the career you choose.

How to Draw Graffiti Letters for Beginners

Graffiti is a form of art. Some people construe graffiti as vandalism instead of art, but that is just one way to use graffiti. It is illegal to draw graffiti on property that you personally do not own. If you like the look of graffiti, you can draw graffiti in your bedroom, on your own house, on a shed that you own, on sketchbooks, in your attic, in your basement or anything else you can think of that you personally own. If someone else owns the space with you, then you will need to get permission from her as well.

There are all sorts of graffiti styles.


  1. Practice drawing graffiti letters in your sketchbook with a pencil. Practice designing and drawing several sample alphabets. Keep in mind that graffiti letters overlap each other, can be large, blocks, bubbly, angular, rounded, all capital, all lowercase, cursive, print or any combination of the above.
  2. Practice drawing your sample letters in words with a pencil. When creating words, decide which of the elements from Step 1 you will include and how they will overlap. Also keep in mind stretching parts of a letter is a possibility, such as the bottom of an L, R, K or Z used as an underline for the rest of the word. Add creative elements to your letters, such as a face in the middle of an O, or teeth at the “mouth” of a G.
  3. Choose your color scheme and then color the practiced words with markers. Outline your letters in one color and fill them in with another. Add drop shadows to your words with any color you choose.
  4. Choose a wall to paint on if you legally have permission to do so or own the space yourself. If this is not an option, you can use a canvas of any size you desire.
  5. Draw a grid using chalk. Then plot out your letters by drawing them lightly with the chalk. Paint the fill-in sections first with spray paint. Get closer to your words and then slowly use the spray paint to trace the outlines and draw the shadows.
  6. Apply varnish to your finished product to protect it.

Facts About American Musical Theatre

American musical theater refers to live theatrical productions in which the characters sing and speak as they tell a story. Most American theater is written for Broadway, a network of 40 professional theaters in New York City. Thus, American musical theater pieces are commonly called Broadway musicals. Once it has been performed on Broadway, the show is always referred to as a Broadway musical even if it is being performed by a touring company, regional theater, community group or school.
American musical theater is a unique art form.


  • A musical has three parts which are the book, music and lyrics. The book refers to the words that the characters say, while lyrics are words that the characters sing. The book and lyrics together are called the libretto. The lyrics and the music together are called the score. Usually, these parts are written by different people. For example, the music for Oklahoma was written by Richard Rogers and the book and lyrics were written by Oscar Hammerstein II.


  • Early American musical theater had a strong European influence. In addition to European operettas, American musical theater has roots in vaudeville and burlesque. After the turn of the 20th century, George M. Cohan wrote the first true American musicals. According to the website Theatre History, “Not only were the settings and characters of Cohan’s musicals thoroughly American, but his dialogue, lyrics and melody were colloquial and native. The spirit of brashness, cocksureness, energy and chauvinism that pervaded the Cohan musicals were unmistakably American.”


  • All American musical theater was comedy until Hammerstein and Kern wrote a musical play, Show Boat, which had much more serious themes. Today, artists write both musical comedies and musical plays. Recent examples of musical comedies are Avenue Q and Spamalot while examples of more serious musical plays are Next to Normal and Spring Awakening.


  • Broadway musicals serve many purposes. Musicals are an artistic expression of the composer, lyricist, set designer, costumer, director, choreographer and actors. They offer unique forms of communication that entertain audiences. Some musicals challenge political or cultural assumptions. Certain musicals serve as a record of various time periods in American history. Musicals that are available for schools to perform can be used as educational tools.


  • The most famous and popular American musicals are performed on Broadway for years. For example, Cats opened on October 7, 1982 and closed on September 10, 2000. As of 2010, Playbill reported that the longest running shows in American musical theater history include The Phantom of the Opera, Les Miserables, Chicago, Beauty and the Beast, Rent, The Lion King, Miss Saigon and 42nd Street.

What Are the Benefits of Theatre in Schools?

Theater teaches children important values, such as commitment and dedication. Most importantly, theater teaches children how to grow into the adults that they want to become. It helps them learn to accept others as well. For these reasons, theater is essential for all schools.

What Are the Benefits of Theatre in Schools?

Self Confidence

  • Being part of a play shows children that there are people who appreciate them. Theater helps build up self-esteem with each round of applause the performers receive.

Public Speaking

  • Public speaking can be a huge problem for someone too shy or someone who lacks confidence. Being part of the theater can help a child to move past her shyness and develop proper public speaking skills.


  • Theater brings out a child’s creativity in a way that no sport can. This newly discovered creativity can help improve a child’s reading and math skills by teaching her to open up her mind. If a child is playing a math whiz, she may become more interested in math as part of her research and characterization.


  • Being part of a theater program is a great way to teach a child about commitment. When a child is involved in the production of a play, he’ll realize that there are many others who are depending on him. He has duties that must be fulfilled, or he will let his co-stars and co-workers down.


  • Theater requires a lot of dedication. A child must learn his lines and memorize stage blocking. Dedication is an important skill that is always used in the real world. Children learn this the moment they participate in a play production.

Digital Vs. Analog in Art

Digital technology is engulfing all aspects of contemporary life, and the art world is no exception. Analog art forms such as painting, sculpture and film-based photography are more frequently either combined with or replaced by digital processes. Even in areas such as documentation of art, digital technology is having an impact. Many artists combine digital technology in their art process, either in creating the artwork or in using digital technology to create a finished piece, such as a giclee print.

Digital technology is increasingly prevalent in art.


  • Analog art is any art where the material making the art is manipulated by hand, like paint. You can control any portion of it. Digital is constituted of many individual pieces of electronic information–such as pixels, in the case of digital photography–which cannot be further broken down.

Analog Art Forms

  • Painting, sculpture, printmaking from ink and film photography are considered analog. These are the traditional fine arts, made from tangible materials that are manipulated by hand or with simple tools

Digital Art Forms

  • Online art and digital photography are digital art forms. More and more artists are incorporating the web either to make their art or distribute it. Some artworks now only exist as online entities, and have no physical presence except for what you see on the computer screen.

Combining Digital and Analog

  • Sometimes digital and analog forms are combined in the creation of a work. For example, a painting done in acrylic is scanned electronically, rendering a digital image, which can be manipulated with a photo editing program. A high-quality
    giclee print of the painting can then be printed from digital image. Some giclee prints are printed onto primed canvas to re-create the look of the original painting. Many artists use computer tools to either capture or create images which are then produced in analog form.

Documentation and Distribution

  • Artists used to have to take slides of their artwork using film cameras. This entailed shooting (and often reshooting) artworks and distributing individual slides, which were seldom projected. Digital photography makes it easier to get high-quality images and distribute them to galleries or place them online for viewing.

Choosing an Art Gallery Website

If you’re an artist, you know that spreading the word about your work runs a close second in importance to all the effort you put into your art to begin with. Even if creating fulfills you, there’s nothing like sharing the fruits of your efforts with others who may come to love it, and to get compensated for your labor of love.
Luckily, the age of the Internet has introduced a number of opportunities to put your work out there. While there are large e-commerce sites such as Etsy, there are also a growing number of sophisticated online galleries that attract fine art lovers, makers and collectors.

Here’s a selection of some of the online fine art gallery options currently out there for sharing and selling your artwork:

  • This site allows for the purchase and sale of art around the world. It targets both photographers and visual artists, as well as galleries that want to sell pieces online. Images can be sold in the form of originals, prints, greeting cards, and even smartphone cases, with added marketing opportunities. The site is royalty-free. You set your price. Standard accounts are free, but premium accounts are $30 per year, which offers a range of additional features and tools. If someone purchases one of your prints and has it matted and framed using the service, you get a 5% commission.
  • This site allows for the sale of artwork, splitting the sales 50/50 with the artist. Regardless of whether or not the artist is invited to exhibit, there is a $5 application fee. To sell through this website, artists must hand over exclusive selling rights to UGallery. The cost to the artist appears to be 50 percent of the sales and the $5 application fee.
  • This site provides links to a range of sites where the artist’s work can be shown, in addition to public and private forums to obtain answers to questions as well as advice. The cost for participation in this site starts at $6.50 per month, but a permanent account can be purchased for $499.
  • These galleries are free and artists are offered an unlimited number of image uploads per gallery. Galleries can be marked private by the artist, or marked public for viewing by anyone. Buyers can purchase the expertly printed piece and can choose to have it shipped to them with or without a custom frame. The artist sets the per-image fee for the artwork, and the artist received 100% of that fee with each sale. The site also provides additional opportunities for exposure with its monthly Featured Artist Contest and social sharing now available through each artist gallery which is optimized for Google search. Each uploaded image for the featured artist contest is manually viewed and approved by an American Frame team member. Features are being constantly added to improve the artist’s experience.

Choosing the right gallery can make a big difference in an artist’s ability to obtain the exposure that is needed to sell the pieces, and to receive the most fair price, possible for his or her artwork. This is a choice that must be carefully made, and many different factors – from storage to fees and royalties – must be considered along the way.

Laura Jajko is President of Marketing at, the nation’s leading online source for custom frames, mat board, archival digital printing services and picture framing supplies. For inspiring picture framing and design ideas, visit her blog, A Good Frame of Mind; and join her on Twitter @laurajajko and .

 What Is a Religious Icon?

A religious icon is a representation of a saint, the Blessed Virgin or Christ that may be rendered in paint on wood, ceramic mosaic, precious stones or metals, weavings and tapestries, marble, ivory or other media. Most commonly, icons are defined as paintings on wood panels, displayed and venerated in the Eastern Orthodox tradition. They are symbolic windows to the sacred through which the faithful contemplate holy mysteries and, some believe, the figure depicted in the icon offers a blessing in return.

A 12th-century mosaic at the Hagia Sophia shows the Virgin and Christ Child against a gold background.

Portable and Permanent Icons

  • Religious icons are created to inspire direct communication with the saint or deity depicted. Believers seek a sense of the presence of the sacred, and they petition the subject of the icon for a special grace or healing. Small icons, like religious medals, can be worn around the neck. Historically, icons were suspended on poles and carried into battle to secure victory in the name of God. Other forms of icons include wooden triptychs, which are three-fold painted panels that open out, “awakening” the icon and firing up a connection to the divine. Church frescoes and mosaics are fixed panels and walls showing sacred figures and scenes. Churches like the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, a magnificent domed basilica with a ceiling and walls decorated with elaborate mosaic icons, were designed to celebrate Christian articles of faith in images.

Breathing Spirit

  • Making the traditional painted wood icon involves a series of symbolic actions. The selection and preparation of the thinnest panel of seasoned wood reminds believers of the Tree of Knowledge and the Tree of Life. The breath of life is evoked when the iconographer breathes on the image to moisten it slightly so the delicate gold leaf will adhere to it. Gold represents the divine light of paradise, and it shines behind the image of a saint to indicate that the saint is looking down from heaven. Each of the egg tempura colors has its own meaning. Red is divinity or martyrdom, white means wisdom or purity, white with black symbolizes truth, orange is faith, greens and browns mean the earth and humanity, and blue is the symbol for eternity. Even the egg in the paint mix is a symbol for resurrection.

Widespread Iconography

  • Icons are associated with Christianity, but they have existed as powerful and mystical objects from earliest recorded history. Cave chambers covered in paintings may have been sites of religious worship and revelation. Pagan images evoked the gods and goddesses. Asian religions continue to connect icons with powerful blessings; Hindu statues of deities are believed to be murtis — living figures of the gods. Artistic depictions of religious scenes and saints were important teaching tools, bringing the great mysteries of many faiths to the uneducated and illiterate. Today, Roman Catholics expressly permit iconic statues, paintings, carved panels and stained glass windows in their churches for purposes of inspiration and contemplation. But Catholics are reminded to venerate the idea represented, not the image.

Not by Human Hands

  • Some icons are considered miraculous, their origins not attributed to work by human hands. The term for these icons is “acheiropoieta,” and they include a Byzantine cloth, called the Mandylion, bearing the image of the face of Christ. This is a concept nearly identical to the Roman Catholic Shroud of Turin, believed to be the grave wrappings of Christ that bear his imprint. One characteristic of acheiropoieta is the ability to transmit iconic images — copy itself to another media. Another acheiropoieta, the Keramion, is a ceramic tile said to have received the Christ image from the Mandylion after coming in contact with it. These supernaturally produced icons — like the Mexican statue of Our Lady of Guadalupe — are venerated as relics and seen as sources of divine power and healing.Read more :

How to Do Fimo Nail Art

Fimo nail art — a special, 3D way of creating special nail designs — is handcrafted from Fimo polymer clay. The technique comes from Charlene “Cat” Therien, a polymer clay designer who creates the products in a cookie dough-like roll formation that is then cut into ultra-thin, identical designs. The designs come in all sorts of shapes and sizes, including hibiscus flowers, roses and hearts. You don’t have to visit a salon to get these artistic designs; you can apply them at home.

Talk to your manicurist about getting Fimo nail art next time you visit the salon.


  1. Purchase your Fimo nail designs online; there are several websites that sell this type of nail art. Some require you to slice the designs yourself, while others are pre-sliced for your convenience. The four-inch cane-slicing blade can be purchased from most craft retailers.
  2. Slice your Fimo designs with the cane-slicing blade, if you purchased the designs in roll form. Slice the roll as thin as possible, so the design does not extrude too far off your nail’s surface.
  3. Apply a layer of base coat nail polish to each of your fingernails. Make sure the coat is thin, so it won’t clump up.
  4. Affix the Fimo nail design to your fingernail carefully, pressing the design into the still-wet layer of nail polish. You might need to use tweezers for accuracy, as the Fimo nail designs are incredibly small.
  5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 on the rest of your fingernails. Allow the designs to dry to the nail for about 60 seconds.
  6. Apply a thin layer of top coat over each of your fingernails to seal in the designs.

How to Make a Picture Graffiti-Like in Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is one of the most common ways graphic artists and photographers edit and enhance their imagery. The software enables everything from changing a color photo to black and white or adding spot color into grayscale images. If you’re looking to add a bit of street flavor into your pictures, Photoshop can help you create graffiti with just a few clicks and tweaks.


  1. Open a photo in Photoshop by going to File > Open and click the Browse button to find your picture on your computer.
  2. Click the Filter menu at the top toolbar, select Stylize, then select Glowing Edges. A Glowing Edges box appears.
  3. Slide the Edge Width slider bar all the way to the left.
  4. Slide the Edge Brightness slider bar all the way to the right.
  5. Slide the Smoothness bar to your preference; the further left you go, the more precise and thin your lines will be. If you slide the bar to the right, you get thicker lines but lose detail. Click the OK button when ready. Your picture now reflects the changes and has a bright, neon graffiti look to it.
  6. Save your image by going to File > Save As and renaming it so you keep your original photo for further use.

The History of Musical Theatre Dance

Modern dance used in musicals has its roots in the beginnings of theatre itself. The use of dance is often to help tell a story, to heighten emotion or to achieve aesthetic value. Musical theatre dance is as varied as the individuals performing it, but has been appreciated by audiences for centuries.

Dance is used to heighten aesthetics in theatre.

Ancient Roots

  • The ancient Grecian satyr play was a comedic performance enhanced by music, dance and sometimes masks, while in ancient India, the Natya Shastra was an important text that taught performers how the use of words and gestures (bhavas) evoked specific emotions (rasas) in the audience.
    The use of the bhavas is crucial to ancient Indian theatre.
    The use of the bhavas is crucial to ancient Indian theatre.

Medieval and Renaissance Theatre

  • In Medieval Japan, Noh was a leading artistic performance style blending the use of readings, music, costumes and dance to portray simple beauty. One important element was the jo-ha-kyu dance, which was a courtly dance incorporated into the rest of the play.

    Medieval European theatre was often limited to Passion Plays about Jesus Christ or morality plays, but the Renaissance era saw a reemergence of stylized performances of masques, which were spectacle events combining music, dance and speeches.

    Graceful beauty of an Asian performer.
    Graceful beauty of an Asian performer.

Ballad Opera in the Pre-America Colonies

  • Ballad operas were a form of British performance displaying political commentary through the use of music and dance. The first musical theatre performance that was held in the American Colonies was the ballad opera “Flora” in 1735.

Early America

  • Minstrel shows featured individuals “blacking” their faces and doing parodies of African Americans. While these pieces are controversial, they are also considered a foundation for modern American musical dance. Actors would perform various forms of hardshoe dancing, creating dance steps still seen in musicals today.

    Another key performance was “The Black Crook,” coming about as the result of Broadway theatre manager Thomas Wheatly employing a Parisian ballet troupe whose intended performance space caught fire. He added the dancers to an already-existing melodrama and the result greatly pleased audiences.

Twentieth Century American Musical Dance

  • The Ziegfeld Follies, produced from 1907 to 1931, were tributes to the American girl, and the dance directors of the Follies required a good deal of discipline from their actors/dancers. These directors included Julian Mitchell, Ned Wayburn and Albertina Rasch. The Follies can be credited with redefining theatrical dance with the beginnings of ordering dancers by height, requiring precise movements and using dance notations.

    “Show Boat” (1927) is considered to be the first successful integration of plot line, characterization, music, spectacle and dance. In 1936, choreographer George Balanchine used extended ballet pieces to help develop the plot line in “On Your Toes.” This tradition of musical theatre dance continued through shows such as “Oklahoma!” and “Guys and Dolls.”

Musical Dance Continues

  • Musicals intended to display dance sequences were created in the later 1900s in shows like “Cabaret,” “A Chorus Line” and “Cats.” Some of the more well-known choreographers of the later 20th century include Bob Fosse, who encouraged sensuality in movement; Jerome Robbins, who believed that dance could tell a story; and Gary Chapman, whose choreography extended beyond dance into regular stage movements.

Digital Technology & Its Impact on Filmmaking

Digital technology has changed the way we view films. New digital cameras capture sharper, clearer footage, and the technology has made special effects increasingly impressive. Digital technology has also become cheaper and more accessible.


  • The second half of the 20th century marked the advent of digital technology in film making. “Star Wars” was the first of its kind to use computer generated special effects. Disney’s “Tron” in 1982 was the first movie to use high resolution imagery. Seven years later, director James Cameron used computer generated images (CGI) in his live action film “The Abyss.” Ten years later, every scene in George Lucas’ “The Phantom Menace” included CGI.

Image and Sound Quality

  • Digital cameras increase image resolution which created higher quality pictures. Footage filmed with a digital camera is also easier to edit. Unlike analog film, it does not lose any signals during the editing process. Digitally recorded sound also has a higher quality than analog-recorded audio. The resolution is higher, and the sound quality does not deteriorate.

Special Effects

  • In the early days of film making, special effects were achieved through camera tricks. Those effects looked amateurish, and sometimes proved to be more humorous than convincing. Digital technology can create dazzling special effects that appear realistic and natural, and engineers use computers to insert them into the films.

Impact on Plot

  • The advances in special effects have impacted how movies are made. However, some people argue that as special effects get better, movie plots become worse. Critics claim that directors exploit digital technology so much that they ignore a weak plot. The result is a technically spectacular movie with a insubstantial story.

The Democratization of Filmmaking

  • Digital technology has made the art of film making more accessible. Decent quality digital camcorders are available to anyone, and editing programs can be accessed on a home computer. Websites such as You Tube provide global exposure for budding filmmakers. Films that would not have been before digital technology can now be seen all over the world.

What You Should Know About Events This Year

Things to Consider When Choosing a Wedding Band There is so much to consider as a couple when planning for a wedding. One thing that stands out during the preparations however is the need for good music for the reception party. Sadly though, even with prior knowledge of how crucial this is most couples end up rushing through the choice in the last minutes of wedding preparations thus making poor choices that interfere with the celebration. To avoid having such a scenario and instead offer cool music for the wedding you will have to consider several factors as mentioned below. Find out if the band has a list of songs from which you can select Most bands give their clients no chance to decide on the type of songs to play on their day. Contrary to their advertising, most of these bands want to be in control and will manipulate the songs as they deem fit. To avoid such occurrences it helps to understand beforehand how much you will be involved in the entire process. Start by sending a possible playlist preference via email and wait for the band’s response before making any agreements.
5 Key Takeaways on the Road to Dominating Bands
Does the band play music between sets?
What Almost No One Knows About Music
Having to hire both a DJ and live band can be a very costly affair yet you must have someone play cool music at your wedding event. It is important to find a band that is willing to cover all sessions of the wedding. Pay attention when hiring a band since not all bands will be willing to offer extra services freely. One thing you can be sure of is uncompromising music quality therefore leaving you with a task of researching on a band that is affordable and available. Special first song The common thing in most wedding is to have a special first song for the newlyweds to dance. Make sure the band you are hiring is willing to learn and play your special song. For couples who do not have any special songs finding a kind band to offer suggestions and learn a new song without extra charges would be a great idea. Time that the band has been in existence Before you hire a wedding band, make sure you are convinced of their expertise. Familiarity around these events is a key consideration. Make sure that you are comfortable with how the band organizes its music for the day. Choosing to go with a band for your wedding can be a great idea if you make the right choice.

Customs of the Huron Indian Tribe

The Huron Indian tribe was part of the great Iroquois-Huron family of tribes that existed in the American northeast prior to the arrival of European settlers. The government of this array of tribes was one of the earliest representative governments on the North American continent and served as a model for the later Iroquois confederation. Soon after the Europeans arrived, the Huron were dispersed and all but decimated. The tribe retains three reserves in Canada.

Society and Family

  • The social structure of the Huron, like all member groups in their confederation, was based on extended family groups. Membership in a given clan was based on a matrilineal line of descent. All property was owned by the matrilineal clan, rather than an individual. The typical Huron family group consisted of the entire extended family. All members of the family helped to rear children. At an early age, the family began to teach their children to use the skills they would need as adults.

    The government of the Huron as it stood on the eve of the European invasion was a confederation of clans and villages across the Eastern seaboard. Each village was responsible for handling its own individual affairs, but when a concern presented itself that affected the entire confederation, a council would make the decisions. The council consisted of male representatives, or “sachems,” from each of the clans. A given clan was generally made of several villages, connected by a hereditary relationship.


  • The Huron spoke the Wyandot language. This was one of the five languages spoken by the Iroquois-Huron family of tribes. The last native speaker of Wyandot died in the 1960s. There are currently efforts underway to revive the language and help to preserve the heritage of the Huron people.


  • The Huron religion was based on a belief of many spirits, or Oqui, which inhabit the natural world and have an effect on everyday human existence. Four very important figures appear in the Huron creation story. They are the Aataentsic, who is the mother of all human kind, along with Louskeha, a creative being, and Tawiscaron, who is responsible for death and disease. The fourth figure is the great turtle, who is responsible for rescuing Aataentsic by ordering the fishes to create land on which she can live.

    Healing is another important element of Huron culture. Sickness is believed to be both physical and spiritual, and so healers had to be adept at both physical remedies and communication with the spirit world.

Arts, Crafts, and Entertainment

  • The Huron’s artistic pursuits frequently coincided with religion. These included ceremonial painting, carving, and mask making. For entertainment, they enjoyed a variety of games and sporting events, including tobogganing and lacrosse.

What Types of Arts & Crafts Did the Aztec Tribes Produce?

The Aztecs ruled the Valley of Mexico from their main city, Tenochtitlan, during the 15th and 16th centuries. When the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the 16th century, they found a well-planned city with ordered streets and large buildings resembling pyramids and an advanced culture with its own writing system, mathematical system and an elaborate religion. Most of the arts and crafts created by the Aztecs had religious significance.

Aztec arts often had religious significance.

Aztec Religion

  • The Aztecs worshiped an intricate system of gods and the three most important were Huitzilopochtli, the god of war, Tezcatlipoca, the main god, and Quetzalcoatl, the god of civilization. Most Aztecs believed that the gods must be appeased and would not provide for mankind if mankind did not make sacrifices. Human sacrifice was practiced on a massive scale and also paid tribute to the gods through plays, food offerings and sporting events. The Aztecs believed that every day of the year had one good and one bad god overseeing it. Through a series of complex calculations, using calendars, humans could predict what would occur and how to appease the gods for the best outcome.

Pottery and Sculpture

  • The Aztecs used pottery for both practical and religious purposes. The pottery was often adorned with images of the gods and featured hand-painted images. Aztec temples contain elaborate sculptures made in bas-relief that depicted the gods or the images of those selected for human sacrifice. Aztec artisans also created small sculptures of people and animals made from crystals, particularly quartz and also used jade and obsidian. The Aztec calendar was an important part of the civilization’s religious beliefs and they kept both a solar and ritual calendar. The calendars were carved in stone, and circular bands were used to carve and depict the days of the year.

Painting and Writing

  • Aztecs created pictographs, which were small paintings that recorded events in the lives and history of the tribe. The tribe maintained scribes who used natural materials such as vegetable oils to make the drawings. Pictographs were also used in the Aztec mathematical system, with paintings of different objects representing specific numbers.

Ritual Arts

  • The Aztecs used masks that depicted important citizens in the community and gods, as well as headdresses in their rituals. Aztec craftsman decorated the headdresses with bird feathers and also used feathers to adorn the clothing of the nobility. Aztec warriors tattooed themselves with designs that represented the achievements of a particular warrior.

How to Paint a 3D Children’s Wall Mural

Painting a 3D children's wall mural
Learning how to paint a 3D children’s wall mural sounds like a big challenge. In fact, adding three-dimensional elements to your children’s wall mural might be as easy as raiding your sewing closet or placing an order online. Several companies specialize in 3D wall elements; if you’re creative, you can come up with your own 3D elements for your child’s wall mural. Allow whatever paint you use to dry completely before you apply any 3D elements to your wall to ensure the elements adhere properly without damaging the paint.


  1. Design your child’s wall mural. You can draw your own design, or make photocopies from your favorite book.
  2. Turn that design into a transparency that you place on an overhead projector.
  3. Use the overhead projector to trace the mural onto the wall. You can sometimes borrow an overhead projector from your local library.
  4. Paint your child’s wall mural according to the colors and designs you select for your design.
  5. Determine which items you can make three-dimensional. Large-scale items in the mural, like a sky, don’t always make the best 3D objects because of their size. However, smaller items like trees, vehicles, fish and flowers work well.
  6. Shop for 3D elements you can add to the space. Some companies, such as rondo, sell soft, thick foam with a self-adhesive backing that you can peel and stick to your wall for a 3D effect.
  7. Cut your own 3D elements if desired. Using any type of wood, draw the design of your 3D item onto the piece of wood and cut it out with a jigsaw. If you need help drawing the item onto the wood, use your overhead projector and a transparency of your drawing. Paint the wood according to your design.
  8. Think about other opportunities to add 3D elements to a children’s wall mural. If you have an underwater mural, consider using felt as the water and adding Velcro fish to the felt. You can use crepe paper to make trees and vines in a jungle room. You can even use green fringe on your wall to look like grass.
  9. Secure your 3D elements to the wall. Use wood screws to secure wooden 3D elements; use staples for paper, fringe and Velcro. If your 3D item comes with a self-adhesive backing or tools to install the item to the wall, read the manufacturer’s recommended installation instructions.

How to Draw 3D Art

Form is the element of art that describes the 3D qualities of an artwork. In drawing, you can create the illusion of form by using another element of art called value. Value is a range of darkness to light or, simply put, shading. Three-dimensional objects reflect light in the areas where they are closest to us. They recede into shadows in the parts that move away from us. Before beginning the steps below, take some time to look at things you like to draw. Notice in the mirror the shadows under your nose, the highlights on your cheeks. Notice how the tree trunk is darker on the edges and lighter in the middle where its roundness comes toward you.

Use value to create 3D effects in drawing.


  1. Sketch your entire drawing very lightly. Give yourself a clear map of where objects are on the page, but keep in mind that it is only a map. This sketching shows you the shape of your artwork just like a real map shows you the shape of a place. Determine the position of the light source. You do not have to draw your light source, just know its location. The parts of objects in your drawing that protrude the most and are closest to your light source will be the lightest. The parts that are farthest from your light source or from you as a viewer will be darkest. The parts that are in between will be medium.
  2. Shade gently in the areas that will have medium shading. You always can darken them more later on. Working in layers gives you the most versatility and reduces the need for erasing. For example, assume the sun is shining down on a tree from the top right corner of your page. The branches and section of the trunk that are getting some light off to the side, but are not directly facing that top corner, would have medium shading. Also, consider texture as you add your shading. Objects far away will have less visible texture than those close up. On the tree, you would notice the roughness of the bark and tiny details in the leaves as you got close.
  3. Darken the areas of deepest shadow. In the tree example, these would be the parts of the branches and trunk that are facing completing away from the sun. Continue to work with the object’s texture where shadows are not so dark that they obscure surface detail.
  4. Go back with a gum eraser and lift the graphite to create highlights or leave highlight areas untouched. On your tree, leaves and branches facing the sun would obviously be the lightest and show the greatest detail. You also can fill in gray tones and dark shading around the highlighted areas, making them stand out even more.

How to Design a 3D Kitchen Using Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is an excellent tool for creating just about any digital image. While Photoshop is not normally used to create 3-D artwork or designs, there are options and tools that can be used to create the effect. These techniques can be picked up with relative ease compared to using a more traditional 3-D-based design software. Once completed, your kitchen design can be used to create a full overhaul of your existing kitchen layout.

How to Design a 3D Kitchen Using Adobe Photoshop


  1. Click the line tool and set the pixel size to 4. Click the circle on the middle left section of the the screen and create a small (1-inch diameter or less) dot for the vanishing point of the illustration. This will allow you to create a 3-D kitchen using single point perspective. Draw a rectangle around the perspective point so that the dot is in the upper right corner for the back wall. Click the line tool on the upper right-hand corner and drag it to the upper right hand corner to create a ceiling line. Click on the bottom right-hand corner of the back wall rectangle and drag this to bottom right corner of the screen to create the bottom of the right wall.
  2. Click the line tool inside the dot and drag the tool diagonally to the upper right to create the top of the cupboard. Click and drag another line just under this to create the bottom front edge of the cupboard. Click on the top cupboard line halfway up the line and drag a vertical line down to connect to the bottom front edge of the cupboard. This will create the end of the cupboard.
  3. Click in the bottom left corner of the cupboard and drag a horizontal line across the screen to the right to create the bottom of the cupboards. Click inside the dot and drag two lines going diagonally to the bottom right corner of the screen to create the top of the oven and kitchen counter. Click inside the dot and drag a line down and to the right so it goes off the middle bottom right of the screen. This will create the bottom of the kitchen counters and oven. Draw a rectangle with your line tool to the left of the perspective point to create the refrigerator. Click on the upper right and bottom right corner of the refrigerator and drag a line from each corner into the perspective point.
  4. Click on the line denoting the front edge of the kitchen counter, directly to the left of the back wall. Drag a line horizontally to the right until you hit the back edge of the kitchen counter. Click at the same point where the horizontal line was started and drag a vertical line down from this point to the bottom edge of the kitchen counter. This will create the back corner of the kitchen counter.
  5. Add three vertical lines inside the cupboards to create the separate cupboard doors. Click inside the dot and drag a diagonal line that is between the bottom of the cupboard and the top back of the kitchen counter. Add four vertical lines, one near the end of the counters, two grouped close together near the bottom right of the screen to create the top right section of the oven, and one in between to show the left end of the oven. Add two perpendicular horizontal lines to create the right side edge, and then two more perpendicular vertical lines to show the rest of the right side edge of the stove. Repeat this on the left end of the stove.
  6. Add the handles to the refrigerator and cupboards with small rectangles that you create with vertical lines. Add the cabinets to the kitchen counter with two diagonal rectangles under the right side of the kitchen counter. Click on the square brush for the eraser and set the size to 25 pixels. Erase all the overlapping or unnecessary perspective lines you used to create the cupboards, oven, refrigerator and kitchen counter.
  7. Use the paint bucket tool to add color or shading to the picture. Click on the color you would like and dump this on the area you want colored. Create shadows by choosing a color two shades darker and dumping that on the underside or side areas of the object. Save the image as a Jpeg at maximum resolution. You can take this design to an architect or interior designer, and they will help you bring the design to life.

How to Design 3D Images

Designing a 3D image requires the use of a computer program that can create a 3D model and computer-generated imagery (CGI). The 3D image requires the use of specific lighting and texture attributes to complete its final look. Some animation programs enable you to do all these in a single program, while some are dedicated for specific CGI works such as 3D modeling, animation, lighting and texturing.

Designing a 3D image requires the use of a 3D perspective.


  1. Conceptualize the look you want for your 3D image. You can do this by hand or digitally-drawing a still image. Collect all 3D modeling data required to design your image in the computer. The data may include those acquired from a motion-capture camera or those acquired from a 3D-scanned scale model, especially for 3D images meant to be used for animation productions. If you are only designing the 3D image and not animating it, use your still image as your primary guide for your design.
  2. Start making your 3D model using a 3D-modeling program or an animation program that is also capable of creating 3D models. This model serves as the skeletal system of your image, which is essential in finalizing its look. The 3D-modeling process requires the creation of “avars” or hinges, which are dots that compose the 3D image’s skeletal system. These dots — forming various geometric entities such as lines, triangles, rectangles and flat and curved surfaces — are required to complete the image’s shape. Collectively, the avars you make also work as bones and joints, which are important when intending to use the 3D image for an animation project.
  3. Form and shape the body, skin and/or surface of your 3D model. Incorporate all other body or object parts to cover the 3D model’s skeletal system. If your design is a human character, design the clothes and establish the character’s personality based on its physical attributes. If your design is an animal or object, design its physical attributes accordingly as well.
  4. Render your final 3D image and export it to your desired file format.

Read more :


  1. Conceptualize the look you want for your 3D image. You can do this by hand or digitally-drawing a still image. Collect all 3D modeling data required to design your image in the computer. The data may include those acquired from a motion-capture camera or those acquired from a 3D-scanned scale model, especially for 3D images meant to be used for animation productions. If you are only designing the 3D image and not animating it, use your still image as your primary guide for your design.
  2. Start making your 3D model using a 3D-modeling program or an animation program that is also capable of creating 3D models. This model serves as the skeletal system of your image, which is essential in finalizing its look. The 3D-modeling process requires the creation of “avars” or hinges, which are dots that compose the 3D image’s skeletal system. These dots — forming various geometric entities such as lines, triangles, rectangles and flat and curved surfaces — are required to complete the image’s shape. Collectively, the avars you make also work as bones and joints, which are important when intending to use the 3D image for an animation project.
  3. Form and shape the body, skin and/or surface of your 3D model. Incorporate all other body or object parts to cover the 3D model’s skeletal system. If your design is a human character, design the clothes and establish the character’s personality based on its physical attributes. If your design is an animal or object, design its physical attributes accordingly as well.
  4. Render your final 3D image and export it to your desired file format.

How to Design a 3D Truck

The American truck is an automobile built on the idea of rugged independence. Trucks allow people to haul lumber, tools and farm equipment for jobs that are traditionally in isolated areas and under the open sky. For the example in this article, you will be learning how to design a truck with a a blue paint job. However, once you learn the basics, you can design any type of 3D truck.
Design a 3D Truck


  1. Draw a long rectangle for the body of the car. Draw a shorter rectangle to the left of the long one. Attach these two shapes with a straight line.
  2. Add a trapezoid to above and to the right of the front rectangle to create the front window. The top line of this trapezoid should be shorter than the bottom line. Add triangle to the right side of the trapezoid for the front-side window. Erase the top point of the triangle and replace it with a horizontal line.
  3. Draw a square directly to the right of the triangle for the back-side window. Add a horizontal line above these shapes. This line should start above the front window and continue just past the back-side window. Attach a diagonal line to this line so that it connects with the body of the truck.
  4. Draw two circles for the truck’s left-side wheels. Place one near the front left and the other near the back right. The back wheel should be smaller than the front. Add a curved line under the front left side of the truck to show the bottom of the front right wheel. Draw another curved line between the front and back left-side tires. This will act as the back-right wheel.
  5. Add details to the basic frame. Draw a small diagonal rectangle to the left-bottom corner of the front-side window for the side mirror. Add the grill with a rectangle in the upper middle of the front of the truck. Add two small rectangles to the left and right sides for the grill for headlights. Add the doors with vertical lines on the side of the truck. Place the first vertical line at the just below the side mirror. Add another vertical line running between the front and back windows. Add the last vertical line under the bottom-right corner of the back-side window.
  6. Draw four horizontal lines across the grill. Add a curved line above each wheel. Draw the door handles with a small thin rectangle inside a circle. Add one just below the bottom-right corner of the front side window and another under the bottom-right side of the back window. Draw the rims on the car with small circles inside the center of the wheels. Erase all the guidelines. Ink the entire drawing. Let the ink dry and erase the pencil.
  7. Color the entire body of the car baby blue. Color the windows, tires and inside of the grill black. Color the bumper, rims and metal of the grill light gray. Color the side-left headlight orange. Using the dark blue marker, add dark lines to the bottom of the body of the car. Add dark lines around the tires as well. This will help the car have realistic shading. Add dark gray lines to the middle, bottom and right side of the bumper to add depth.

The Pro & Cons of Banning Graffiti Art in Los Angeles

Los Angeles is a city famous the world over not only for its street art, but also for its high crime and poverty rates. There is a fine line between art and vandalism and while all unauthorized painting on public and private property is illegal, there is no explicit law relating to graffiti. A complete ban on graffiti with stiff penalties for offenders could have both positive and negative repercussions for L.A.

Though graffiti is illegal in most places, several people argue for its cultural importance.

An Encouragement

  • Graffiti, as an art form, thrives on confrontation with authority. A city-wide ban in LA would provide the offenders with an opportunity for a confrontation. Establishing graffiti artists as outsiders legitimizes the antagonistic nature of the art and may end up encouraging more artists to join the cause. With high levels of relative poverty, extremely poor areas riddled with drugs and violence in contrast to the wealthy Hollywood megastars, Los Angeles is a hotbed of political and cultural unrest that a ban might exacerbate.

Graffiti as a Social Good

  • Graffiti performs a valuable social function, transforming depressed neighborhoods into showcases for urban art. Neglected and crime-ridden areas of L.A. can become the gallery for a very talented group of young artists who might not otherwise have an outlet for their creativity. In addition, graffiti can make informed political statements and draw attention to issues ignored by the mainstream media. The work of artists like United Kingdom-based Banksy isa testament to the power of graffiti to make thought-provoking statements.

Cynical Use of Graffiti

  • Some artists and even companies use graffiti as free advertising. While legitimate advertisers have to pay for space, irritating promotions can masquerade as artistic expression. In the commercial world of L.A., this is a particular problem, with enterprising individuals seizing the opportunity to cut advertising costs and tap into a particular market. A ban would therefore limit the opportunities for this kind of abuse.

Ugly Graffiti

  • While some graffiti might be regarded as artistry, a significant amount qualifies as petty vandalism. Gangs and individuals use spray-painted tags as a way to mark territory or merely to deface pleasant areas of the city. A ban would prevent this practice, and punishments for graffiti such as cleaning up painted areas of the city might help improve the look and feel of dilapidated neighborhoods.

History of Graffiti Art

Graffiti is not always referred to as art. Sometimes it is referred to as vandalism. This is because it involves the scrawling or painting of something on someone else’s property. Namely, this pertains to buildings, but it could also include signs, billboards and even vehicles. Still, this mostly art form has existed since ancient times and continues to be a strong way for people to express themselves.

History of Graffiti Art


  • The oldest form of modern day graffiti comes from Ancient Greece, and is thought to be an ad for prostitution. The ancient Romans and Egyptians also practiced graffiti on tombs, monoliths and other constructions. Mayans and Vikings also had graffiti art in their cultures. As time went on and passed into the Renaissance period, many famous artists emerged. Even those such as Donatello or Da Vinci would graffiti their names where they went. Graffiti continued in future cultures, with many invading armies painting or carving it in the walls of places they occupied. Modern graffiti artists have used the form to express themselves, their political or religious beliefs, or simply to make a mark.


  • The United States is thought to be the home of the modern graffiti movement. It began in New York City in the 1970s and spread from there. Brazilians emulated this graffiti in their own work, which is thought to be some of the best in the world, with many powerful artists coming out of Sao Paolo in particular. In the Middle East, graffiti has a short history. It has been growing since the 1990s in Iran, Iraq and Israel. In particular, the Israeli West Bank wall has become a major site for graffiti.


  • During ancient times, graffiti functioned as a simple way to alert people of the presence of underground areas or illegal activity. It was also used to mark religious symbols on holy places in a city. During the Renaissance and the years following, it was used as a sort of “I was here” marker for famous artists and invaders, and it was less of an art form. Modern graffiti is colorful, artful and often has a message behind it, which can be just about anything.


  • Graffiti of the past was much simpler than modern graffiti. It did not use many colors and was often comprised of simple shapes, though one or may have been drawn into each other. Sometimes, the graffiti was simply a name. Modern graffiti may be only a name as well, or a code name for the arts (called a tag), but it often incorporates many colors and is larger than ancient graffiti. Still, in whatever form it comes, graffiti can be recognized as vandal art.


  • The most recent history of graffiti has seen the art beginning to blend into pop culture and mainstream audiences. It is highly linked to hip hop cultures, as well as the “MTV culture” as some call it. In the late 1990s, graffiti has even been encouraged by some places, which may give artists a wall to paint on and practice their art. This shows that the future of graffiti art may lean less towards and vandalism and more towards artistic expression. However, this worries purists, since the definition of graffiti makes it an illegal art form.

How to Start a Drama School

“To be or not to be” may be the question, but when it comes to starting a drama school of your own, it's not the only question you will need to answer. The process of starting a school or non-profit theater company is different in each state. However, there are some basic beginning steps you can follow to get set up for success. The process can be rewarding, especially if your community doesn't have much access to arts programming in the public schools or a nearby university.

Starting a drama school can be tricky.


  1. Decide upon an overview for your school's curriculum and write a mission statement. Before you can open your doors to potential students, you must decide exactly what your school is going to teach and what students will gain by attending your school. Traditional university theater programs teach acting, movement for the stage, voice and diction, theater history, and technical arts. Starting with that base framework, you will need to write a course progression that details what skills a student will learn in each segment. For example: In an acting progression, you might see that in Acting 1, a student will learn basic stage presence and work on simple monologues; then, in Acting 2, the student builds on those skills by working on scene study with an acting partner and exploring techniques found in Stanislavsky's “An Actor Prepares.”

    While developing your curriculum, you should think ahead to special or advanced classes you may want to include from time to time, such as improvisation, circus arts, acting for the camera or musical theater.

    Once you've written a complete course outline, you should then write your mission statement to clearly reflect what students will learn if they attend your school and why they should learn those things.

  2. Research accreditation and hire teachers. In most states, if you are planning to teach students under the age of majority, you will need either accreditation or special certification by the state government. In many states, teachers also need to be fingerprinted and tested for communicable diseases and drugs before being allowed to work. At the very least, you must ensure that potential teachers have proper training and experience to teach the classes in your curriculum. For example, you don't want someone who has never heard of the Alexander Technique to teach an advanced movement course.
  3. Name and incorporate your business. You may want to obtain legal advice while doing this, as the regulations for incorporating a small business vary from state to state. You could also visit a legal website (such as Legal Zoom or others), which will walk you through the steps of incorporating your business. The most important thing to establish is whether the business is a non-profit or for-profit. The processes of obtaining business licenses are very different depending upon this designation. If you want to have a non-profit school, you'll need to file for 501(c)(3) status and provide the IRS with documentation of your funding streams.

    At this time you'll also want to open a bank account and credit in your school's name.

  4. Name an advisory board. Before opening your school's doors, you need to pick a select panel of theatrical experts and community members to help guide the school's objectives. The advisory board can be very important for the overall governance of the business, and it is essential to have in place when applying for funding and grants.
  5. Write a budget. You'll need to include teacher salaries, rent for your school space, renovation costs and operating costs. Detail how much revenue you expect to raise from students and how much is coming from other sources such as investors, grants or gifts.
  6. Find and rent a space for your school. Large warehouse and old storefront spaces work wonderfully to house theater schools. With a little manpower and DIY effort, you can transform one of these unused spaces into a nice studio space. Remember to install the following important things in your school space: dance flooring, mirrors and perhaps a small, raised stage.
  7. Advertise your school and recruit students. You can't have a school without students! Once you've completed the above steps, you should be on firm-enough ground to start taking on students and creating class schedules.

Negative Effects of Digital Technology

Digital technology goes back to well before the modern era. It basically involves the use of a special language–a system of signs that combine together to convey information. Technically, a book is a form of digital technology. Today, most people use the term “digital” to refer to computer technology, which uses a binary language of 1s and 0s. The modern computer has changed the world in ways both positive and negative.

Digital technology is changing the world in ways both positive and negative.

Alienation from Nature

  • From a certain point of view, digital technology is merely the next logical step in a long process that has seen mankind lose touch with the natural world. Critics fear that this alienation has been both the cause of unhealthy mental habits and neurosis in individuals, as well as the cause of environmentally destructive habits in society at large.

Loss of Originality

  • The critic Walter Benjamin famously described art in the 20th century as having lost its aura. Works of art were now being mass-produced by machines and originality was less important. Digital technology has taken this process even farther than Benjamin imagined, making the reproduction of digital artwork (such as a music or movie file) unlimited. Critics claim that this cheapens art and makes it harder for a creator to benefit from his or her originality.


  • Digital technology has proven to be a very destabilizing force where it has been introduced. Older hierarchies in business and politics have already been disrupted by computers and the Internet. Digital technology is inherently difficult to police and as the world becomes more digital, it will also become more lawless and out of control. Critics point to the breakdown of copyright law as an example.

Digital Divide

  • As computers and other digital tools become more important, the difference between those who have digital technology and those who don’t becomes more dangerous. Many critics point to a “digital divide” which increases the differences already existing between the rich and the poor. Bringing access to digital technology for the world’s poor is a developing problem in the new modern world.

Computers as Nature

  • From one point of view, computers are as much a creation of the natural world as trees or the rain. This is because human beings are a product of the natural world. It stands to reason that anything human beings create will be as much a part of the natural world as they are. Understanding the digital in this way shows the promise and danger of technology, as nature can be both cruel and kind.

About Choctaw Religion

Choctaw is a well-known Native American tribe. It is considered to be one of the five civilized tribes because it was quick to adopt many of American customs and technological advancements. Choctaws belong to the Muskogean linguistic group. Originally, Choctaws did not practice the Christianity religion. Instead they had their own religion with principles similar to the Mayans and Incas.

The Facts

  • The root of the Choctaw religion is based around the sun and worshiping it. Members of the ancient tribe considered the sun to be a god, most often called Hashtahli. The moon was thought to be his wife. The tribe referred to her as Hashi Ninak Anya, and believed the stars at night were the children of the sun and the moon. Fire is extremely important in the Choctaw religion because it is considered to be a secondary representation of the sun and its heat. Four is a significant number to the religion because there are four seasons and four cardinal directions, as well as four key elements. The tribe has always acknowledged the presence of evil in the world, but they did not consider it to be from a single source, such as the devil in Christianity. Instead, there were said to be several different entities of evil and mischief, such as Impashilup, who was capable of consuming a person’s soul if they allowed him into their thoughts as well as many others who could be found anywhere from the river to the woods. When a Choctaw dies, it is believed that their spirit goes to “the Happy Land” similar to heaven in Christian beliefs.

History of

  • Ancient Choctaws are believed to have descended from the continent LeMuria, which is believed to have been washed away by the Pacific Ocean. It is said the tribe emerged from the ocean to be dried by their deity, the sun, and then moved east before settling in what is now the state of Mississippi. It is believed the tribe is possibly related to the Aztecs and Mayans, as well as the Incas and that their religious beliefs stemmed from those of these ancient cultures.


  • There are basically two main groups within the Choctaw tribe. The first is simply referred to as “the tribe” and can mainly be found in Mississippi. The other group is called “the nation” and presides in the state of Oklahoma. Both sects of the tribe share the same religious background because both originally are from the same area.


  • The Choctaw religion deems women as the givers of life because they bear children and are responsible for growing the vegetables. Therefore it is somewhat of a matriarchy in that when a man marries a woman, he becomes a member of her family and lives with them from that point on. He is never considered an actual member of the family because he continues to be a member of his own mother’s family. Still, he stays with the family and works with them. Men are considered to be takers of life because they hunt and kill the food the tribe eats.


  • The religious beliefs of the Choctaw tribe have evolved over time. Today most members of the tribe practice at least some version of Christianity. This is most likely due to the tribe’s integration into European American culture. Still, there are some who continue to practice the ancient Choctaw religious beliefs.

Jobs That Fit a Philosophy & Religion Degree

Your degree in philosophy and religion provides excellent preparation for many careers. You have explored the basic principles of existence and gained valuable insight into matters of social justice and human rights. You have well-honed communication and critical thinking skills, a combination that will open doors to both traditional and not-so traditional careers.

You can explore other options.


  • With an advanced degree in philosophy and religion, you can teach in a college or university. If you have chosen the field of education, you can enjoy working with students and keeping up with the latest developments. In addition to preparing and implementing lesson plans, you will evaluate the students, serve on committees and write articles and books. You may also be asked to design “distance learning” courses over the Internet. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, there will be an increase in employment of post-secondary teachers during the decade ending 2018.

University and College Support Positions

  • It makes sense to explore opportunities in a familiar field where you have experienced success. Entry-level opportunities exist in many areas, including admissions, housing, athletics, student life and alumni affairs. You can apply your expertise to helping students survive and thrive in a new environment. Each year, colleges and universities hire alumni to fill many of these positions. The field is a very dynamic one with frequent moves and promotions, especially among admissions and alumni affairs officers. Admission officers recruit potential students, create promotional materials, review applications and interview students. Alumni affairs officers write publications, coordinate social events and conduct tours.


  • Many entry-level positions exist for generalists who can handle all aspects of philanthropy, including planning special events, writing grants and proposals, recruiting volunteers and soliciting funds.These jobs are more altruistic than profit related and may appeal to philosophy and religion graduates.You could raise funds for a particular charity, oversee a scholarship fund or sponsor a youth group. Arts organizations also have fundraising professionals on staff. Museums, symphonies, ballets and operas rely heavily on grant funds, corporate donations and general solicitation campaigns to fund their activities. Volunteer with a nonprofit organization and determine whether or not philanthropy is a good option.


  • You can understand and analyze complicated texts, develop a well-structured argument and express ideas in a clear and persuasive manner. As a recent graduate, you have worked with state-of-the-art software applications and have developed programming skills. Most entry-level jobs in the computer field do not require specialized knowledge; they simply require a comfort level with the present technology and a willingness to keep up-to-date. You can also parlay these skills into technical writing jobs. Use your well-developed research and writing skills to create proposals, manuals, articles and instruction sheets. You qualify for many government jobs, especially those associated with developing programs and writing reports. In the political arena, you can help plan campaigns and write speeches for the candidate of your choice.

How to Make Paper Art

When you hear the term “paper art,” you probably imagine origami–those cute little animals and birds made from folding a sheet of paper into intricate folds, creating the image of a living being. Origami may be the most widely known paper art, but there are many other forms of paper art that you can enjoy.


  1. Choose a design that appeals to you. There are patterns available for many different designs that come with full instructions for folding the paper.
  2. Purchase origami paper. This paper is designed for use in creating origami. It is thin and lightweight and folds easily. It is available in many different sizes and colors, often with each side of the paper a different color.
  3. Follow the instructions for the design you wish to create. If you are new to origami, it is best to choose a simple design for beginners. Be patient as you learn this new art form. Your skills will develop as your practice folding and creating designs.

Paper Mache

  1. Consider paper mache for creating 3-D art forms out of paper. Paper mache can be used to create elaborate and detailed sculptures and other pieces of art. Although you may think paper mache is just for kids, you are mistaken. Some truly wonderful designs are possible with nothing more than some paper and a little glue and water.
  2. Shred newspapers into strips 1/2-inch by the length of the paper. These pieces will be used to develop the base of your project.
  3. Mix plain white school glue with warm water. Add enough glue that the water feels slippery and smooth to the touch. It does not have to be gooey and sticky.
  4. Soak the paper strips in the glue and water mixture until they are soft and well saturated. Do not leave the strips in the water for long periods as they will dissolve.
  5. Cover the object you are using for a base to your project with strips of paper mache. Smooth them with your hands to remove and wrinkles or bumps. You can create a base with inflated balloons, chicken wire or any other lightweight material.
  6. Allow to dry overnight. Add layers to your piece of art by using newspaper and the glue mixture. To build up areas, you can use finely shredded newspapers that have been nearly dissolved in the glue and water mixture. Squeeze out excess water and apply to the area like sculpting material.
  7. Paint the finished project.

Paper Models

  1. Choose a design that appeals to you and purchase or download the appropriate patterns and instructions. See the resource section for free patterns for paper models.
  2. Follow the instructions for creating the 3-D model. These are similar to origami, but are made from multiple pieces and are not folded from one sheet of paper.
  3. Be patient and don’t get discouraged. Building 3-D paper models is difficult and requires time.

Definition of 3-D Design

The term “3-D design” is a widely used abbreviation for three-dimensional design, incorporated commonly in design procedures associated with computers and other electronic drawing systems. In 3-D design techniques, a designer uses all three axes (x, y and z) to interpret and develop a realistic figure of the desired object.

Cubes are designed in 3-D.


  • Almost all 3-D design techniques incorporate four fundamental processes while interpreting an object electronically in its three dimensions: modeling, layout designing, animation and rendering. Modeling in 3-D designs is referred to the interpretation and development of basic object shape, while layout designing deals with the placement of an object within a suitable background. Similarly, the process of animation deals with any movement or motion associated with the object, and rendering defines angling and positioning of the light source within the design.


  • Three-dimensional designs are usually developed on electronic interfaces, such as computers or other image/video processing machines, using some specially developed common software applications like Photoshop, AutoCAD, Flash, 3-D Studio Max and Maya. Upon development, these designs can be viewed electronically or in the form of printed 3-D objects.

How to Create a Banksy Stencil

Though stencil graffiti began during the Second World War, stenciling as a technique dates back to the beginnings of human art. Along with contemporaries like Shepard Fairey and Random von Nothaus, graffiti artist Banksy has re-popularized the use of stencils for public art. Banksy often combines original drawings and text with re-appropriated works of photojournalism to make political and humorous statements. Follow the steps below to make your own Banksy-inspired stencil.

Learn to make stencils in the Banksy style.


  1. Draw or photocopy your image and any text onto an 11- by 17-inch piece of paper.
  2. Draw a 17- by 23-inch rectangle on the art board with a yardstick and permanent pen, then cut it out with your craft knife. Place this smaller piece of board on the tarp and spray it with adhesive. Flip your drawing over and spray the back of it with adhesive, then wait 30 seconds for the glue to begin to dry.
  3. Place the drawing glue-side-down onto the art board and center it so you have a three inch border on all sides. Press the two pieces together with the palms of your hands. Rub across the drawing with a hard squeegee to flatten it completely and encourage the glue to adhere strongly. Wait for the glue to dry.
  4. Cut through the outlines of the black parts of your drawing with the craft knife, pressing hard enough to cut the board below. Leave narrow ligaments to connect independent shapes and ensure the stability of the stencil as a whole.
  5. Find an empty pizza box and use it as a folder to carry your stencil. If you don’t have a pizza box, disassemble a file box, fold it in half and trim it to the right size with the craft knife.
  6. Find a place to apply your stencil and affix it to the surface with gaffer’s tape. Shake a can of matte black spray paint repeatedly for 10 seconds, then spritz the inside of your cardboard folder to start the flow of paint.
  7. Hold the spray can eight inches away from the stencil and spray back-and-forth across the cut-out areas in sweeping motions. Try not to spray any paint outside the edges of the stencil. Use as little paint as possible to avoid causing drips. Remove the stencil from the wall and place it into its cardboard folder.